What's New Here?


     Article is Written By
    Bidhan Sarker
    Wash Technician
    Kiabi International Supply Services Ltd, BD liaison office.
    Contact:bdn.srkr@gmail.com


    Denim is one of the widely used and durable fabric in textile industry. Typically, Denim is a twill fabric where warp yarns are dyed with Indigo/Sulphur and weft yarns are undyed which creates Blue top & white back appearance. This is the general specification of denim. Due to the expansion of denim industry in recent years and demand of denims for fashion which are made in different combinations and it obviously appears with different innovations.

    So, considering that point of view denims can be classified in different categories which illustrates the versatility and wide range of denim developments. There are some basic type of denims are described briefly as below-

    According to the fabric weight: 

     Fabric weight per unit area expresses the thickness and the compactness of the fabric which defines the end use. It can be classified into 3 groups.

    1)    Light weight- weight around 4.5Oz-6Oz. Using for denim shirts/top items
    2)    Medium weight- Weight range around 7Oz-10Oz. Using for kids bottom items
    3)    Heavy weight- weight range around 11Oz-More. Using for ladies/men bottom items.

    According to the weave Construction & mechanism:

    Mostly denims are twill weave. But now there are some variations in terms of weave that are given as below.



    2/1twill: it seems more like plane in appearance. Tapered shedding mechanism is used in this production. 









     

    Sateen: for smooth surface and silky appearance.Tapered shedding mechanism is used in this production 







     

    3/1twill: it seems more prominent diagonal lines.Tapered shedding mechanism is used in this production.









     

    Fake knit: basically, its sateen-based twill which gives like Fleece appearance on the back side. Dobby shedding mechanism are used in the production.








     

    Broken: Broken twill construction is applied on this and after wash appearance seems flatter. Tapered & Dobby both shedding mechanism can be used in this production.








     


    Fancy: different types of dobby/jacquard mechanisms are applied in the production.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    According to the dyeing process: 

    Indigo is the main Dye for denim. But to make more variations Indigo & Sulpher dyes are combined in different ways. So based on that it can be classified as following-

    1.    Indigo Blue denim (Only Indigo)
    2.    Blue-Black denim (Sulphur top + Indigo Bottom or Indigo top + Sulphur bottom)
    3.    Grey denim (low Sulphur concentration + Vat dye)
    4.    Black Denim (only Sulphur)

    According to the Finishing processes & end uses:

    Considering the end use or special criteria it can be classified as following-

    1.    Regular denim- regular 100% cotton, cotton poly denim with basic Finishing which ensure the dimensional stability of the fabric during washing.

    2.    Selvedge denim- To Keep fabric Selvedge untwisted and used the area as styling during weaving width wise selvedge is made in different way but strong. This is basically done in weaving stage.

    3.    Stretch denim- Considering comfort in wearing elastane are using in weaving. Those denims are known as stretch/comfort denim. Those types of denim Stentering& Compacting is very important to keep the Stretch & fabric width consistent

    4.    Coated denim: Normally special types of coating consisting chemical mixtures are applied on the surface of the fabric to give a coated look. Those types of denims are used in Raw look garments manufacturing. /styling. 

    5.    Water repellent Denim: To make the Fabric water repellent wax type coating are given on the fabric during finishing. This type of fabric is used for Jacket/some special biker jeans.
    There are some other varieties like Slab Denim, Cross slab Denim, etc. But those are the variations coming because of the yarn count variations. Those can be achieved in any types. So, its not major classifications.

    Classification of Denim Fabric | Different Types of Denim Fabric

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments


     Article is Written By
    Bidhan Sarker
    Wash Technician
    Kiabi International Supply Services Ltd, BD liaison office.
    Contact:bdn.srkr@gmail.com


    Denim is one of the widely used and durable fabric in textile industry. Typically, Denim is a twill fabric where warp yarns are dyed with Indigo/Sulphur and weft yarns are undyed which creates Blue top & white back appearance. This is the general specification of denim. Due to the expansion of denim industry in recent years and demand of denims for fashion which are made in different combinations and it obviously appears with different innovations.

    So, considering that point of view denims can be classified in different categories which illustrates the versatility and wide range of denim developments. There are some basic type of denims are described briefly as below-

    According to the fabric weight: 

     Fabric weight per unit area expresses the thickness and the compactness of the fabric which defines the end use. It can be classified into 3 groups.

    1)    Light weight- weight around 4.5Oz-6Oz. Using for denim shirts/top items
    2)    Medium weight- Weight range around 7Oz-10Oz. Using for kids bottom items
    3)    Heavy weight- weight range around 11Oz-More. Using for ladies/men bottom items.

    According to the weave Construction & mechanism:

    Mostly denims are twill weave. But now there are some variations in terms of weave that are given as below.



    2/1twill: it seems more like plane in appearance. Tapered shedding mechanism is used in this production. 









     

    Sateen: for smooth surface and silky appearance.Tapered shedding mechanism is used in this production 







     

    3/1twill: it seems more prominent diagonal lines.Tapered shedding mechanism is used in this production.









     

    Fake knit: basically, its sateen-based twill which gives like Fleece appearance on the back side. Dobby shedding mechanism are used in the production.








     

    Broken: Broken twill construction is applied on this and after wash appearance seems flatter. Tapered & Dobby both shedding mechanism can be used in this production.








     


    Fancy: different types of dobby/jacquard mechanisms are applied in the production.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    According to the dyeing process: 

    Indigo is the main Dye for denim. But to make more variations Indigo & Sulpher dyes are combined in different ways. So based on that it can be classified as following-

    1.    Indigo Blue denim (Only Indigo)
    2.    Blue-Black denim (Sulphur top + Indigo Bottom or Indigo top + Sulphur bottom)
    3.    Grey denim (low Sulphur concentration + Vat dye)
    4.    Black Denim (only Sulphur)

    According to the Finishing processes & end uses:

    Considering the end use or special criteria it can be classified as following-

    1.    Regular denim- regular 100% cotton, cotton poly denim with basic Finishing which ensure the dimensional stability of the fabric during washing.

    2.    Selvedge denim- To Keep fabric Selvedge untwisted and used the area as styling during weaving width wise selvedge is made in different way but strong. This is basically done in weaving stage.

    3.    Stretch denim- Considering comfort in wearing elastane are using in weaving. Those denims are known as stretch/comfort denim. Those types of denim Stentering& Compacting is very important to keep the Stretch & fabric width consistent

    4.    Coated denim: Normally special types of coating consisting chemical mixtures are applied on the surface of the fabric to give a coated look. Those types of denims are used in Raw look garments manufacturing. /styling. 

    5.    Water repellent Denim: To make the Fabric water repellent wax type coating are given on the fabric during finishing. This type of fabric is used for Jacket/some special biker jeans.
    There are some other varieties like Slab Denim, Cross slab Denim, etc. But those are the variations coming because of the yarn count variations. Those can be achieved in any types. So, its not major classifications.


    Article is Written By
    Bidhan Sarker
    Wash Technician
    Kiabi International Supply Services Ltd, BD liaison office.
    Contact:bdn.srkr@gmail.com


    Denim Fabrics are weaved & Finished batch wise and finally delivered in rolls. Moreover, color fading variation during washing is very common in Denim production. So, it’s very important that same category or same range denims are cut, sew and wash together to keep the consistency along with the whole production. As well as Similar shrinkage group maintenance is also important to keep the garments measurements are in acceptable range.

    To check and maintain all those issues Shrinkage & Blanket shade grouping is very important steps in Denim industry.Let’s see those basic procedure and checking points.



    All Together Blanket: 

    This is the primary checking and segregation stage.

    •   Swatch size should be 12” in length and 8” in width
    •   Need to attaché back side supporting fabric
    •   Same as the wash target, 1 recipe. No segregation.
    •   Should apply dry process if Standard have and have to achieve the color from washing.
    •   2sets need to wash. 1 for segregation and another for the reference copy.
    •   After washing shade segregation are done by marking shade number to keep same family shades

    Group Blanket:

     This is the Second checking and segregation stage where shade wise recipe variation is set off.
    • Swatch size should be 8”X8”
    • According to the shade segregation, 4 sets of same (same cut piece arrangement) blankets where 2 sets are washed, and 2 sets are kept unwashed
    • If the unwashed shade variations are too high, then closer shades are sewing together and wash separately to get maximum required shades.
    • Cross check with the standard for the maximum shade consistency in a same group
    • After checking and marking, proceed for the color continuity card 

    Color Continuity Card:  

    This is the final documentation and representation stage to check the whole consignment shades at a glance
    • After washing all together blanket swatches they should be segregated for shade and used to make color continuity card
    • Washed swatch size should be 6” in length and 7” in width. Before wash swatch size should be 6” in length and 3.5” in width. [Buyer requirement wise size might be changed]
    • Swatches should be arranged in the color continuity card according to the shade family and lighter-darker.
    • Shade wise fabric details are mentioned in the card so that it can be easily track.


    Shrinkage Test Process: -

    •  Every roll must be tested for shrinkage.
    •  Shrinkage recorded in shrinkage test report
    •  Need to check result against with supplier FDS (Fabric Data Sheet)
    • One shrinkage group must not exceed 3% variations lengthwise/width wise. In case of warp or weft shrinkage exceedes 3%, sub grouping is necessary as illustrated below.
    • For each shrinkage group need to make a size set and if required need to revise patterns.

    Example: - Warp range %- 1,2,3,4,5,6

                       Weft range % :3, 4, 5

    Shrinkage group
    Warp range
    Weft range
    1
    1, 2, 3,
    3, 4, 5

    2
    4, 5, 6
    3, 4, 5

    Basic Procedures of Denim Fabric Srinkage and Shade Checking

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments


    Article is Written By
    Bidhan Sarker
    Wash Technician
    Kiabi International Supply Services Ltd, BD liaison office.
    Contact:bdn.srkr@gmail.com


    Denim Fabrics are weaved & Finished batch wise and finally delivered in rolls. Moreover, color fading variation during washing is very common in Denim production. So, it’s very important that same category or same range denims are cut, sew and wash together to keep the consistency along with the whole production. As well as Similar shrinkage group maintenance is also important to keep the garments measurements are in acceptable range.

    To check and maintain all those issues Shrinkage & Blanket shade grouping is very important steps in Denim industry.Let’s see those basic procedure and checking points.



    All Together Blanket: 

    This is the primary checking and segregation stage.

    •   Swatch size should be 12” in length and 8” in width
    •   Need to attaché back side supporting fabric
    •   Same as the wash target, 1 recipe. No segregation.
    •   Should apply dry process if Standard have and have to achieve the color from washing.
    •   2sets need to wash. 1 for segregation and another for the reference copy.
    •   After washing shade segregation are done by marking shade number to keep same family shades

    Group Blanket:

     This is the Second checking and segregation stage where shade wise recipe variation is set off.
    • Swatch size should be 8”X8”
    • According to the shade segregation, 4 sets of same (same cut piece arrangement) blankets where 2 sets are washed, and 2 sets are kept unwashed
    • If the unwashed shade variations are too high, then closer shades are sewing together and wash separately to get maximum required shades.
    • Cross check with the standard for the maximum shade consistency in a same group
    • After checking and marking, proceed for the color continuity card 

    Color Continuity Card:  

    This is the final documentation and representation stage to check the whole consignment shades at a glance
    • After washing all together blanket swatches they should be segregated for shade and used to make color continuity card
    • Washed swatch size should be 6” in length and 7” in width. Before wash swatch size should be 6” in length and 3.5” in width. [Buyer requirement wise size might be changed]
    • Swatches should be arranged in the color continuity card according to the shade family and lighter-darker.
    • Shade wise fabric details are mentioned in the card so that it can be easily track.


    Shrinkage Test Process: -

    •  Every roll must be tested for shrinkage.
    •  Shrinkage recorded in shrinkage test report
    •  Need to check result against with supplier FDS (Fabric Data Sheet)
    • One shrinkage group must not exceed 3% variations lengthwise/width wise. In case of warp or weft shrinkage exceedes 3%, sub grouping is necessary as illustrated below.
    • For each shrinkage group need to make a size set and if required need to revise patterns.

    Example: - Warp range %- 1,2,3,4,5,6

                       Weft range % :3, 4, 5

    Shrinkage group
    Warp range
    Weft range
    1
    1, 2, 3,
    3, 4, 5

    2
    4, 5, 6
    3, 4, 5

    Based on source Textile Fibers are classified into two groups.




    Vegetable or Cellulosic fibers:

    The fibers that are derived from plants are called vegetable fibers. The basic material of all plant life is cellulose. Cellulose is made up of elements like carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These cellulose fibers have certain common properties like low resilience, high density, and good conductor of heat. They are highly absorbent and are resistant to high temperature. Cotton, flax, jute, ramie, coir and sisal are some of the examples of vegetable fibers.

    Animal fibers:

    The fibers which are obtained from animals are called animal fibers. Wool and silk are common examples of animal fibers. They are made up of protein molecules. The basic elements in the protein molecules are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Animal fibers have high resiliency but weak when wet because they are bad conductors of heat. Alpaca, Llama, rabbit, horse and kesin are also some of the animal fibers.

    Mineral fibers:

    They are the inorganic materials shaped into fibers and are mainly used in the fire proof fabrics. Asbestos is the example of mineral fiber. Mineral fibers are fire proof, resistant to acids and are used for industrial purposes. Carbon and graphite are also mineral fibers.

    Man made or Synthetic fibers:

    These refer to those fibers that are not naturally present in nature and are made artificially by man. Man made fibres have high strength and strong, when wet low moisture absorption characteristics. Examples of man made fibers are nylon, polyester etc.

    Regenerated cellulosic fibers are called semi-synthetic as raw materials are of natural source but made in laboratory. Some regenerated fibers are Viscose rayon, acetate rayon and cupramonium rayon.

    Classification of Textile Fiber

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments

    Based on source Textile Fibers are classified into two groups.




    Vegetable or Cellulosic fibers:

    The fibers that are derived from plants are called vegetable fibers. The basic material of all plant life is cellulose. Cellulose is made up of elements like carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These cellulose fibers have certain common properties like low resilience, high density, and good conductor of heat. They are highly absorbent and are resistant to high temperature. Cotton, flax, jute, ramie, coir and sisal are some of the examples of vegetable fibers.

    Animal fibers:

    The fibers which are obtained from animals are called animal fibers. Wool and silk are common examples of animal fibers. They are made up of protein molecules. The basic elements in the protein molecules are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Animal fibers have high resiliency but weak when wet because they are bad conductors of heat. Alpaca, Llama, rabbit, horse and kesin are also some of the animal fibers.

    Mineral fibers:

    They are the inorganic materials shaped into fibers and are mainly used in the fire proof fabrics. Asbestos is the example of mineral fiber. Mineral fibers are fire proof, resistant to acids and are used for industrial purposes. Carbon and graphite are also mineral fibers.

    Man made or Synthetic fibers:

    These refer to those fibers that are not naturally present in nature and are made artificially by man. Man made fibres have high strength and strong, when wet low moisture absorption characteristics. Examples of man made fibers are nylon, polyester etc.

    Regenerated cellulosic fibers are called semi-synthetic as raw materials are of natural source but made in laboratory. Some regenerated fibers are Viscose rayon, acetate rayon and cupramonium rayon.

    Fibers are the primary raw material of textile processing. There are many kinds of textile fibers whose general properties are similar but not exactly same to each other. Some common properties must contain by the fibers to spin into yarn. All the fibers are not textile fibers so the basic properties are very important to be a textile fiber. 

    General properties of Textile Fibers are of three categories:
    • Physical Properties
    • Chemical Properties
    • Thermal Properties

    Physical Properties:


    Length to width ratio:  For the processing of fibers into yarns and then fabrics length must bigger than width. The minimum length to breadth ratio is 100:1.  Length of fibers is also classified into two groups as staple and filament. Staple fibers are of relatively short length fibers; and filament fibers are long length fibers. 

    Fiber Fineness: This is the properties of fiber coarseness. Fineness of a natural fiber is a major factor in ascertaining quality and is measured in microns(1 microns= 1/1000millimeter). In general, finer fibers are softer, more pliable and have better drape ability. It is expressed with micronaire value and measured in denier. In case of synthetic fibers, fineness is controlled by the size of holes of the spinneret.

    Tenacity (Strength): Strength of textile fibers is referred to as their tenacity. It is determined by measuring the force required to rupture or break the fiber. Sufficient tenacity is required to withstand the mechanical and chemical processing as well as make textile products which are durable. Tenacity is directly related to the length of the polymers, degree of polymerization, strength in dry and wet conditions, and types of inter- polymer forces of attraction formed between the polymers.

    Flexibility:  Fibers should be flexible or pliable in order to be made into yarns and thereafter into fabrics that permit freedom of movement. Certain end uses require greater flexibility, e.g., automobile seat belts. 

    Uniformity:  Uniformity of fibers towards its length, ensure production of even yarns which can then form fabrics of uniform appearance and consistent performance.  

    Cohesiveness or spinning quality: It is the ability of the fiber to stick together properly during yarn manufacturing processes. Natural fibers have inherent irregularities in their longitudinal or cross sections which permit them to adhere to each other during fiber arranging. In case of synthetics, filament lengths aid in yarn formation. Texturing introduces coils, crimps, curls or loops in the structure of an otherwise smooth filament.

    Morphology:  It is the study of physical shape and form of a fiber. It includes microscopic structure like longitudinal and cross sections. These also include fiber length, fineness, crimp, color and luster. 

    Physical shape: Shape of a fiber include, its longitudinal sections, cross section, surface contour, irregularities and average length.

    Luster: It refers to the sheen or gloss that a fiber possesses. It is directly proportional to the amount of light reflected by a fiber. This in turn is affected by their cross section shape. It is seen when light reflected from a surface. It is more subdued than shine. Silk and synthetics have luster than cellulosic fibers. In fact synthetics have high luster which is purposefully removed during spinning.

    Crimp: Wool fiber is more or less wavy and has twists. This waviness is termed as crimp. Finer the wool more will be the crimps in it. Marino wool will have 30 crimps per inch while coarse wool has only one or two. This property of havingcrimps gives elasticity to the fiber..

    Elongation and Elasticity: The amount of extension or stretch that a fiber accepts is referred to as elongation. Elongation at break is the amount of stretch a fiber can take before it breaks. Elasticity is the ability of stretched material to return immediately to its original size.

    Resiliency: It refers to the ability of a fiber to come back to its original position after being creased or folded. Resilient fibers recover quickly from wrinkling or creasing. Good elastic recovery usually indicates good resiliency. This property is described qualitatively and ranges from excellent to poor. Excellent resiliency is exhibited by polyester, wool and nylon fibers. Flax, rayon and cotton, on the other hand, have a low resiliency.

    Moisture regain: The ability of a dry fiber to absorb moisture from atmosphere is generally termed as moisture regain. Measurements are done under standard testing conditions (70°± 2F and 65% ±2% relative humidity). 

    Chemical Properties:

    Water Absorbency: Fibers are of two categories inherently as hydrophobic or hydrophilic. Hydrophobic fibers have no affinity towards water and hydrophilic fibers are of opposite character. Natural fibers are good in terms of absorbency than any kind of synthetics.

    Resistance Power to Acid:  Cellulosic fibers are not resistant to Acid solution whereas synthetics have good resistance power.

    Resistance Power to Alkali: Cellulosic fibers have fairly resistance power to alkali, especially in mild alkaline medium it does not get harmed but in strong alkaline medium fibers become affected. Synthetics have good resistance power in both mild and strong alkali.

    Thermal Properties:

     Flammability: Burning characteristics of fiber groups vary from each other and can, thus be used as an authentic identification method. Reaction to flame can be further broken down into; behavior when approaching flame, when in flame and after being removed from flame.

    Electrical conductivity(Static Electricity):  It is the ability of a fiber to transfer or carry electrical charges. Poor or low conductivity results in building up of static charges. This leads to the clinging of clothing and in extreme cases can produce electrical shocks, which produce crackling sound or even a tiny spark. Acrylic is a poor conductor of electricity.  Water is an excellent conductor of electricity and fibers with high moisture regains will never face the problem of static build-up.

    Abrasion: The wearing away of a material by rubbing against another surface is called abrasion. 

    Other thermal characteristics of fibers are important in their use and care like washing, drying and ironing are selected on the basis of a fiber’s ability to withstand heat.

    General Properties of Textile Fiber | Physical and Thermal Properties of Fiber

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments

    Fibers are the primary raw material of textile processing. There are many kinds of textile fibers whose general properties are similar but not exactly same to each other. Some common properties must contain by the fibers to spin into yarn. All the fibers are not textile fibers so the basic properties are very important to be a textile fiber. 

    General properties of Textile Fibers are of three categories:
    • Physical Properties
    • Chemical Properties
    • Thermal Properties

    Physical Properties:


    Length to width ratio:  For the processing of fibers into yarns and then fabrics length must bigger than width. The minimum length to breadth ratio is 100:1.  Length of fibers is also classified into two groups as staple and filament. Staple fibers are of relatively short length fibers; and filament fibers are long length fibers. 

    Fiber Fineness: This is the properties of fiber coarseness. Fineness of a natural fiber is a major factor in ascertaining quality and is measured in microns(1 microns= 1/1000millimeter). In general, finer fibers are softer, more pliable and have better drape ability. It is expressed with micronaire value and measured in denier. In case of synthetic fibers, fineness is controlled by the size of holes of the spinneret.

    Tenacity (Strength): Strength of textile fibers is referred to as their tenacity. It is determined by measuring the force required to rupture or break the fiber. Sufficient tenacity is required to withstand the mechanical and chemical processing as well as make textile products which are durable. Tenacity is directly related to the length of the polymers, degree of polymerization, strength in dry and wet conditions, and types of inter- polymer forces of attraction formed between the polymers.

    Flexibility:  Fibers should be flexible or pliable in order to be made into yarns and thereafter into fabrics that permit freedom of movement. Certain end uses require greater flexibility, e.g., automobile seat belts. 

    Uniformity:  Uniformity of fibers towards its length, ensure production of even yarns which can then form fabrics of uniform appearance and consistent performance.  

    Cohesiveness or spinning quality: It is the ability of the fiber to stick together properly during yarn manufacturing processes. Natural fibers have inherent irregularities in their longitudinal or cross sections which permit them to adhere to each other during fiber arranging. In case of synthetics, filament lengths aid in yarn formation. Texturing introduces coils, crimps, curls or loops in the structure of an otherwise smooth filament.

    Morphology:  It is the study of physical shape and form of a fiber. It includes microscopic structure like longitudinal and cross sections. These also include fiber length, fineness, crimp, color and luster. 

    Physical shape: Shape of a fiber include, its longitudinal sections, cross section, surface contour, irregularities and average length.

    Luster: It refers to the sheen or gloss that a fiber possesses. It is directly proportional to the amount of light reflected by a fiber. This in turn is affected by their cross section shape. It is seen when light reflected from a surface. It is more subdued than shine. Silk and synthetics have luster than cellulosic fibers. In fact synthetics have high luster which is purposefully removed during spinning.

    Crimp: Wool fiber is more or less wavy and has twists. This waviness is termed as crimp. Finer the wool more will be the crimps in it. Marino wool will have 30 crimps per inch while coarse wool has only one or two. This property of havingcrimps gives elasticity to the fiber..

    Elongation and Elasticity: The amount of extension or stretch that a fiber accepts is referred to as elongation. Elongation at break is the amount of stretch a fiber can take before it breaks. Elasticity is the ability of stretched material to return immediately to its original size.

    Resiliency: It refers to the ability of a fiber to come back to its original position after being creased or folded. Resilient fibers recover quickly from wrinkling or creasing. Good elastic recovery usually indicates good resiliency. This property is described qualitatively and ranges from excellent to poor. Excellent resiliency is exhibited by polyester, wool and nylon fibers. Flax, rayon and cotton, on the other hand, have a low resiliency.

    Moisture regain: The ability of a dry fiber to absorb moisture from atmosphere is generally termed as moisture regain. Measurements are done under standard testing conditions (70°± 2F and 65% ±2% relative humidity). 

    Chemical Properties:

    Water Absorbency: Fibers are of two categories inherently as hydrophobic or hydrophilic. Hydrophobic fibers have no affinity towards water and hydrophilic fibers are of opposite character. Natural fibers are good in terms of absorbency than any kind of synthetics.

    Resistance Power to Acid:  Cellulosic fibers are not resistant to Acid solution whereas synthetics have good resistance power.

    Resistance Power to Alkali: Cellulosic fibers have fairly resistance power to alkali, especially in mild alkaline medium it does not get harmed but in strong alkaline medium fibers become affected. Synthetics have good resistance power in both mild and strong alkali.

    Thermal Properties:

     Flammability: Burning characteristics of fiber groups vary from each other and can, thus be used as an authentic identification method. Reaction to flame can be further broken down into; behavior when approaching flame, when in flame and after being removed from flame.

    Electrical conductivity(Static Electricity):  It is the ability of a fiber to transfer or carry electrical charges. Poor or low conductivity results in building up of static charges. This leads to the clinging of clothing and in extreme cases can produce electrical shocks, which produce crackling sound or even a tiny spark. Acrylic is a poor conductor of electricity.  Water is an excellent conductor of electricity and fibers with high moisture regains will never face the problem of static build-up.

    Abrasion: The wearing away of a material by rubbing against another surface is called abrasion. 

    Other thermal characteristics of fibers are important in their use and care like washing, drying and ironing are selected on the basis of a fiber’s ability to withstand heat.


    The fiber Spandex, also known as Lycra and Elastane is a man made fiber carries the property of extended elasticity. It was first invented in 1958 at Dupont chemical company which is a polyether and polyeurea copolymer. To make it 85% polyurethane and 15% natural latex are used. The generic name of this fiber is mainly spandex where different location prefers to use different trade name such as Elastane in Europe and Lycra is in UK and Latin America. Lycra is the trade name of Dupont which is being used mostly among all the names. This fiber has increased the diversity of fabric making with great comfort for men, women and kids product. Blend with multiple fiber is now popular where spandex are mostly used for elasticity. Dimensional stability depends on the percentage of this fiber is used in making of fabric. 

    Physical Properties of Spandex Fiber:


    Cross sectional area: Though this fiber is produced and extruded through circular orifices it may appear as non circular cross sectional shapes with wide range of forms.. To make multi-filament yarns individual filaments are usually fused together where 12 to 50 filaments can use to make a yarn. The linear density of filaments ranges from 0.1 to 3 tex (g/km).

    Density: It depends on the requirement and orifices but it ranges from 1.15 to 1.32 g/cc.

    Moisture regain:  This is ranges from 0.8 to 1.2%.

    Length: Since it is filament fiber so it can be of any size as required.

    Colour: Closely white or transparent.

    Luster : Looks a bit dull and less bright.

    Strength: It is weaker than any other filament fiber.

    Elasticity: It carries excellent elasticity.

    Heat: The heat resistance varies considerably amongst the different degrades over 300 degree F.

    Flammability: It burns slowly.

    Electrical conductivity: It has Low electrical conductivity.

    Breaking tenacity: 0.6 to 0.9grams/denier.



    Chemical Properties of Spandex Fiber:


    Acid: It shows quite good resistance power to most of acids unless long exposure in atmosphere.

    Alkalies: Resistance power against alkali is also good.

    Organic solvents: It has resistance to dry cleaning solvent.

    Bleaches: It is affected by bleaching agent and lost the elastic recovery.

    Dyeing: Affinity to dyestuffs is good.


    Uses of Spandex Fiber:
    • Active wear
    • Athletic, aerobic, and exercise apparel
    • Belts
    • Bra straps and side panels
    • Competitive swimwear
    • Cycling jerseys and shorts ski pants
    • Skinny jeans
    • Socks and tights
    • Swimsuits/bathing suits
    • Underwear
    • Wetsuits
    • Triathlon suits
    • Compression garments such as:
    • Foundation garments
    • Bra cups
    • Support hose
    • Gloves
    • Hosiery
    • Leggings
    • Orthopedic braces


    Spandex Fiber | Elastan Fiber | Properties and Uses of Lycra

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments


    The fiber Spandex, also known as Lycra and Elastane is a man made fiber carries the property of extended elasticity. It was first invented in 1958 at Dupont chemical company which is a polyether and polyeurea copolymer. To make it 85% polyurethane and 15% natural latex are used. The generic name of this fiber is mainly spandex where different location prefers to use different trade name such as Elastane in Europe and Lycra is in UK and Latin America. Lycra is the trade name of Dupont which is being used mostly among all the names. This fiber has increased the diversity of fabric making with great comfort for men, women and kids product. Blend with multiple fiber is now popular where spandex are mostly used for elasticity. Dimensional stability depends on the percentage of this fiber is used in making of fabric. 

    Physical Properties of Spandex Fiber:


    Cross sectional area: Though this fiber is produced and extruded through circular orifices it may appear as non circular cross sectional shapes with wide range of forms.. To make multi-filament yarns individual filaments are usually fused together where 12 to 50 filaments can use to make a yarn. The linear density of filaments ranges from 0.1 to 3 tex (g/km).

    Density: It depends on the requirement and orifices but it ranges from 1.15 to 1.32 g/cc.

    Moisture regain:  This is ranges from 0.8 to 1.2%.

    Length: Since it is filament fiber so it can be of any size as required.

    Colour: Closely white or transparent.

    Luster : Looks a bit dull and less bright.

    Strength: It is weaker than any other filament fiber.

    Elasticity: It carries excellent elasticity.

    Heat: The heat resistance varies considerably amongst the different degrades over 300 degree F.

    Flammability: It burns slowly.

    Electrical conductivity: It has Low electrical conductivity.

    Breaking tenacity: 0.6 to 0.9grams/denier.



    Chemical Properties of Spandex Fiber:


    Acid: It shows quite good resistance power to most of acids unless long exposure in atmosphere.

    Alkalies: Resistance power against alkali is also good.

    Organic solvents: It has resistance to dry cleaning solvent.

    Bleaches: It is affected by bleaching agent and lost the elastic recovery.

    Dyeing: Affinity to dyestuffs is good.


    Uses of Spandex Fiber:
    • Active wear
    • Athletic, aerobic, and exercise apparel
    • Belts
    • Bra straps and side panels
    • Competitive swimwear
    • Cycling jerseys and shorts ski pants
    • Skinny jeans
    • Socks and tights
    • Swimsuits/bathing suits
    • Underwear
    • Wetsuits
    • Triathlon suits
    • Compression garments such as:
    • Foundation garments
    • Bra cups
    • Support hose
    • Gloves
    • Hosiery
    • Leggings
    • Orthopedic braces


    Sewing threads are basic element of making any kind of apparel so it it highly needed to calculate actual consumption for making any item. Today's market is very competitive so merchandiser's should give attention on thread consumption also. Sometimes merchandiser's ignore this issue with little importance but for sustainable business policy you have to maintain accuracy in all portions and ensure the least wastage as well.

    There is a basic formula for doing this thing with less effort and time.In that formula you will get multiplying factors according to machine type and stitch class. To determine thread consumption you just need to multiply seam length with that factors. This way one can estimate total thread requirement for making a garment.

    Thread consumption depends on following factors-

    • Style of the garment
    • Types of stitch used
    • Stitch per inch (SPI)
    • Garments size/measurements
    • Seam thickness
    • Thread tension
    • Thread count


    The standard formula belongs according to the below procedures...

    • Find out stitches of various classes
    • Measure the length of each type of stitch
    • Measure the length of sewing thread/inch stitch
    • Calculate total thread in length for each stitch
    • Summarized the total thread for all stitches

    Thread consumption ratios as per coats international:




    Some basic consumptions are given below:


    Item
    Thread Consumption per body
    Basic t-shirt
    125 mtr
    Basic polo shirt
    180 mtr
    Basic long sleeve shirt
    150 mtr
    Basic short sleeve woven shiirt
    125 mtr
    Basic shorts
    350 mtr
    Classic short
    450 mtr
    Basic long pants
    350 mtr
    Classic long pants
    450 mtr
    Basic short all
    350 mtr
    Basic overall
    400 mtr
    Padded coverall
    450 mtr
    Basic romper
    200 mtr
    Skirt
    300 mtr
    Panty
    50 mtr
    Brief
    100 mtr
    Brassier
    150 mtr
    Tank top
    50 mtr
    Denim 5pkt pant
    400 mtr
    Denim jacket
    450 mtr
    Twill jacket
    450 mtr

    Sewing Thread Consumption Procedure | Thread Calculation for Garments Costing

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments

    Sewing threads are basic element of making any kind of apparel so it it highly needed to calculate actual consumption for making any item. Today's market is very competitive so merchandiser's should give attention on thread consumption also. Sometimes merchandiser's ignore this issue with little importance but for sustainable business policy you have to maintain accuracy in all portions and ensure the least wastage as well.

    There is a basic formula for doing this thing with less effort and time.In that formula you will get multiplying factors according to machine type and stitch class. To determine thread consumption you just need to multiply seam length with that factors. This way one can estimate total thread requirement for making a garment.

    Thread consumption depends on following factors-

    • Style of the garment
    • Types of stitch used
    • Stitch per inch (SPI)
    • Garments size/measurements
    • Seam thickness
    • Thread tension
    • Thread count


    The standard formula belongs according to the below procedures...

    • Find out stitches of various classes
    • Measure the length of each type of stitch
    • Measure the length of sewing thread/inch stitch
    • Calculate total thread in length for each stitch
    • Summarized the total thread for all stitches

    Thread consumption ratios as per coats international:




    Some basic consumptions are given below:


    Item
    Thread Consumption per body
    Basic t-shirt
    125 mtr
    Basic polo shirt
    180 mtr
    Basic long sleeve shirt
    150 mtr
    Basic short sleeve woven shiirt
    125 mtr
    Basic shorts
    350 mtr
    Classic short
    450 mtr
    Basic long pants
    350 mtr
    Classic long pants
    450 mtr
    Basic short all
    350 mtr
    Basic overall
    400 mtr
    Padded coverall
    450 mtr
    Basic romper
    200 mtr
    Skirt
    300 mtr
    Panty
    50 mtr
    Brief
    100 mtr
    Brassier
    150 mtr
    Tank top
    50 mtr
    Denim 5pkt pant
    400 mtr
    Denim jacket
    450 mtr
    Twill jacket
    450 mtr

     Cotton fiber contains huge amount of dusts, foreign matters, seed and other particles. During spinning of cotton yarn some wastes produce at different stages. Some of them are re-useable and some are not. Now we are mentioning their name and producing area or machines.

    DROPPING 1
    It is produced in carding machine. In export mill it is not used. But in rotor spinning it is usable.

    DROPPING 2
    Produced in blow room. In export mill it is not used. But in rotor spinning it is usable.

    HARD WASTE 
    Produced in ring frame and winding section. It is non usable waste.

    MICRO DUST
    We collect these dust from A/C plant. It is non usable waste.

    FILTER WASTE
     Produced at different section of spinning mill and collect from A/C plant.

    DIRTY COTTON
    It is produced because of wrong worker handle.

    FINE DUST
     It is collected from A/C plant. It is non usable waste.

    SWEEPING
     Produced at different section of spinning mill and collect from A/C

    PNEUMAFIL
    Produced in ring frame. When end breaks form then increase pneumafil. It is usable waste. Mainly it is used in rotor spinning mill. In Outpace spinning mill it is not used. plant. It is non usable waste.

    ROVING
    Produced in Simplex and Ring frame. These waste is usable. It use again in lay down. It increase because of wrong worker handling and also

    BONDA
    Produced in Ring frame. If cotton bale contain more short fibre then Bonda waste will be increased. It also depend on high end breaks and also Temperature and RH%. Bonda is usable waste. But it is not used in export spinning mill. Mainly it is used in rotor spinning mill machine fault.

    Name of Wastes Produce in Cotton Yarn Spinning | Wastes Name and Producing area of Cotton Spinning

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments

     Cotton fiber contains huge amount of dusts, foreign matters, seed and other particles. During spinning of cotton yarn some wastes produce at different stages. Some of them are re-useable and some are not. Now we are mentioning their name and producing area or machines.

    DROPPING 1
    It is produced in carding machine. In export mill it is not used. But in rotor spinning it is usable.

    DROPPING 2
    Produced in blow room. In export mill it is not used. But in rotor spinning it is usable.

    HARD WASTE 
    Produced in ring frame and winding section. It is non usable waste.

    MICRO DUST
    We collect these dust from A/C plant. It is non usable waste.

    FILTER WASTE
     Produced at different section of spinning mill and collect from A/C plant.

    DIRTY COTTON
    It is produced because of wrong worker handle.

    FINE DUST
     It is collected from A/C plant. It is non usable waste.

    SWEEPING
     Produced at different section of spinning mill and collect from A/C

    PNEUMAFIL
    Produced in ring frame. When end breaks form then increase pneumafil. It is usable waste. Mainly it is used in rotor spinning mill. In Outpace spinning mill it is not used. plant. It is non usable waste.

    ROVING
    Produced in Simplex and Ring frame. These waste is usable. It use again in lay down. It increase because of wrong worker handling and also

    BONDA
    Produced in Ring frame. If cotton bale contain more short fibre then Bonda waste will be increased. It also depend on high end breaks and also Temperature and RH%. Bonda is usable waste. But it is not used in export spinning mill. Mainly it is used in rotor spinning mill machine fault.

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