What's New Here?

    Bangladesh University of Business and Technology  also known as BUBT is a UGC approved private university in Bangladesh. It is one of the eight private universities to receive the green signal from the government. It is located at Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The university was established under the Private University Act 1992 and now BUBT is regulated by the Bangladesh University Grants Commission (UGC).

    BUBT has recently published job circular 2018 for different position seeking the faculty members. The eligible candidates are requested to apply in order to the instruction given in the circular. 

    Textile Engineering Department is a well established  department in BUBT. This department has asked application for the position of Assistant Professor and Lecturer from the eligible candidate. Candidates mush have the degree in Textile Engineering from reputed university with good CGPA.

    Lecturer and Assistant Professor job for Textile Engineering of BUBUT has been published in The dailystart.net and in the official website of BUBT as on bubt.edu.bd and in also in the textileaid.blogspot.com.

    Please see below brief details of the job circular at a glance -

    Organization Name:Bangladesh University of Business and Technology (BUBT)
    Position: Different Position, please see details in job circular image.

    Job Publication Date:  01st of August, 2018
    Online Application Start Date: 01st of August, 2018

    Online Application End Date: 30 August, 2018

    Salary: As per university rules

    Number of Vacancies: please see details in job circular image.

    Educational Requirements: See details in job circular image

    Experience Requirements: See details in job circular image

    Job Types: Private

    Job category: Full time.

    Job location: BUBT

    Jobs Source: Official website of BUBT

    Application Process: Hard Copy

    Image of the Job Circular: (Click on the image to make it larger).





    Bangladesh University of Business and Technology (BUBT) Job Circular | Lecturer Job

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments

    Bangladesh University of Business and Technology  also known as BUBT is a UGC approved private university in Bangladesh. It is one of the eight private universities to receive the green signal from the government. It is located at Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The university was established under the Private University Act 1992 and now BUBT is regulated by the Bangladesh University Grants Commission (UGC).

    BUBT has recently published job circular 2018 for different position seeking the faculty members. The eligible candidates are requested to apply in order to the instruction given in the circular. 

    Textile Engineering Department is a well established  department in BUBT. This department has asked application for the position of Assistant Professor and Lecturer from the eligible candidate. Candidates mush have the degree in Textile Engineering from reputed university with good CGPA.

    Lecturer and Assistant Professor job for Textile Engineering of BUBUT has been published in The dailystart.net and in the official website of BUBT as on bubt.edu.bd and in also in the textileaid.blogspot.com.

    Please see below brief details of the job circular at a glance -

    Organization Name:Bangladesh University of Business and Technology (BUBT)
    Position: Different Position, please see details in job circular image.

    Job Publication Date:  01st of August, 2018
    Online Application Start Date: 01st of August, 2018

    Online Application End Date: 30 August, 2018

    Salary: As per university rules

    Number of Vacancies: please see details in job circular image.

    Educational Requirements: See details in job circular image

    Experience Requirements: See details in job circular image

    Job Types: Private

    Job category: Full time.

    Job location: BUBT

    Jobs Source: Official website of BUBT

    Application Process: Hard Copy

    Image of the Job Circular: (Click on the image to make it larger).






    Textile resources are becoming scarce such as cotton but it has materials that can be resourced and there are also other petroleum based fibers such as acrylic, nylon, polyester or spandex but the production of them are irreversible damage to our environment, therefore many more companies are seeking an alternative to make sustainable fiber and fabrics.


    Considering sustainability and rising of consumer awareness regarding environmental impact Lenzing has invented a new fiber EcoVero™ which is a alternative to Viscose fiber. Lenzing, a company with its headquarter in Austria is considering this new innovation as a milestone in Lenzing's sustainability journey by offering Eco-friendly viscose with the lowest environmental impact in the industry that is setting the new standard with wide benchmark in the sustainability of viscose fibers.

    Viscose which is widely known as Viscose Rayon are used to make soft, silky and luxurious feeling fabric. The material wood are processed to make pulp that are purified cellulose which are often compared with silk and cotton. Though production of viscose are from natural source but they are chemically modified which is known as semi-synthetic.

    Generally the timber are used to make the wooden pulp stems from irrigation-intensive mono cultures, which negatively impact the earth. Consumption of highly toxic chemicals, such as carbon disulfide(CS2) are used during the production of viscose rayon which has led to a number of worker poisonings. Apart this, shipping the cellulose-based semi synthetic fibers around the world also increase the level of carbon di-oxide(CO2) emissions, making it a fiber that is harmful to environment. 

    EcoVero™, the innovative and improved sustainable alternative fiber to viscose rayon.

    Being produced by Lenzing, EcoVero™ is made using wood that comes from sustainable forestry plantations are certified by industry-leading associations such as FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) or PEFC (Program for Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) in Europe. To produce Viscose, bamboo or eucalyptus are commonly used but in EcoVero™ more than 60 percent of the trees used to produced EcoVero™ fibers come from Austria and Bavaria to ensure lower emissions. 


    Launching EcoVero™ fibers by Lenzing that set a new industry standard in sustainable viscose based on three main points-

    • The use of sustainable wood sources (FSC® or PEFC® certified),  
    • An ecological production process (significantly lower emissions and water impact than conventional viscose), 
    • Full supply chain transparency by identifying EcoVero™ fibers in the final product.

    This cellulose fiber is produced with a new, innovative environmental process that has significantly lower emissions and water impact than conventional viscose. Almost all the chemicals used during the production of Ecovero are reusable. In comparison with viscose production, the Ecovero causes 50% less emissions and takes up half as much energy and water with its pulp bleaching being 100% chlorine-free.


    Well known retailers are teaming up with Lenzing to advance their sustainability strategies with traceable Lenzing™ EcoVero™ fibers. The brands have already taken initiative to introduce EcoVero™ to their collection are listed below-
    • Gina Tricot, a Scandinavian retailer.
    • Lindex, Retailer of Sweden
    • Armedangels, The German brand

    EcoVero™ Fiber The Alternative to Viscose is a Sustainable Innovation

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments


    Textile resources are becoming scarce such as cotton but it has materials that can be resourced and there are also other petroleum based fibers such as acrylic, nylon, polyester or spandex but the production of them are irreversible damage to our environment, therefore many more companies are seeking an alternative to make sustainable fiber and fabrics.


    Considering sustainability and rising of consumer awareness regarding environmental impact Lenzing has invented a new fiber EcoVero™ which is a alternative to Viscose fiber. Lenzing, a company with its headquarter in Austria is considering this new innovation as a milestone in Lenzing's sustainability journey by offering Eco-friendly viscose with the lowest environmental impact in the industry that is setting the new standard with wide benchmark in the sustainability of viscose fibers.

    Viscose which is widely known as Viscose Rayon are used to make soft, silky and luxurious feeling fabric. The material wood are processed to make pulp that are purified cellulose which are often compared with silk and cotton. Though production of viscose are from natural source but they are chemically modified which is known as semi-synthetic.

    Generally the timber are used to make the wooden pulp stems from irrigation-intensive mono cultures, which negatively impact the earth. Consumption of highly toxic chemicals, such as carbon disulfide(CS2) are used during the production of viscose rayon which has led to a number of worker poisonings. Apart this, shipping the cellulose-based semi synthetic fibers around the world also increase the level of carbon di-oxide(CO2) emissions, making it a fiber that is harmful to environment. 

    EcoVero™, the innovative and improved sustainable alternative fiber to viscose rayon.

    Being produced by Lenzing, EcoVero™ is made using wood that comes from sustainable forestry plantations are certified by industry-leading associations such as FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) or PEFC (Program for Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) in Europe. To produce Viscose, bamboo or eucalyptus are commonly used but in EcoVero™ more than 60 percent of the trees used to produced EcoVero™ fibers come from Austria and Bavaria to ensure lower emissions. 


    Launching EcoVero™ fibers by Lenzing that set a new industry standard in sustainable viscose based on three main points-

    • The use of sustainable wood sources (FSC® or PEFC® certified),  
    • An ecological production process (significantly lower emissions and water impact than conventional viscose), 
    • Full supply chain transparency by identifying EcoVero™ fibers in the final product.

    This cellulose fiber is produced with a new, innovative environmental process that has significantly lower emissions and water impact than conventional viscose. Almost all the chemicals used during the production of Ecovero are reusable. In comparison with viscose production, the Ecovero causes 50% less emissions and takes up half as much energy and water with its pulp bleaching being 100% chlorine-free.


    Well known retailers are teaming up with Lenzing to advance their sustainability strategies with traceable Lenzing™ EcoVero™ fibers. The brands have already taken initiative to introduce EcoVero™ to their collection are listed below-
    • Gina Tricot, a Scandinavian retailer.
    • Lindex, Retailer of Sweden
    • Armedangels, The German brand

    Denim is considered the most interested field in the glob for creating new fashion. Researchers are developing new technology considering sustainability that leads to invent processes that can go through environmental friendly way.

    Nano Bubble Technology is the new one which is widely known as e-flow system was invented and patented by Jeanologia, a Spanish company in the year 2012 and now it is coming into force in industrial use for denim washing. In fact it is the sustainable finishing process for textile that transfers chemicals on to garments made of any fabric. Water, which is the main career of any finishing process and finally discharges into environment as waste but in e-flow system air from the atmosphere is transformed into the nano bubbles where water and correct amount of chemical products naturally distribute themselves forming the nano bubble skin. Therefore, they can be used as the carriers of the chemicals and transmit them homogeneously onto the garment.

    This technology can contribute to a considerable number of finishing effects with the best level of quality, a maximum less amount of water and there is zero discharge of the process.

    Methodology:

    Air from the atmosphere is taken into an electro-flow reactor and subjected to an electro-mechanical shock that creates nano bubbles and a flow of wet air.

    Then the nano bubbles are transported into a rotating tumbler containing the denim samples and when it comes into contact with them produces a soft and natural hand feel. The samples are then dried even in the same tumble machine it is possible to dry up. Since denims are indigo dyed where unfix dyes are available on the surface of the fabric therefore cross staining may happen with this technology which can be eliminated through using a little bit anti cross staining agent or can treat with dry ozonator.

    The e-flow process breaks up the indigo molecules from the surface of the denim and then the process produces a pre-shrinkage of the fabric, that will contribute to avoid high shrinkage during home laundry. It also gives a softer hand feel and so the garments are comfortable to wear and with an improvement in color fastness to rubbing properties.

    Five benefits of the process:

    • It reduces 95% water and 40% energy consumption.
    • Elimination of waste water and treated chemical to the environment.
    • Superb hand feel can be achieved
    • High quality garments are treated which are being affected by conventional wash process.
    • The brightness and luster are increased

    Nano Bubble Technology Reduces 95% Water in Denim Washing

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments

    Denim is considered the most interested field in the glob for creating new fashion. Researchers are developing new technology considering sustainability that leads to invent processes that can go through environmental friendly way.

    Nano Bubble Technology is the new one which is widely known as e-flow system was invented and patented by Jeanologia, a Spanish company in the year 2012 and now it is coming into force in industrial use for denim washing. In fact it is the sustainable finishing process for textile that transfers chemicals on to garments made of any fabric. Water, which is the main career of any finishing process and finally discharges into environment as waste but in e-flow system air from the atmosphere is transformed into the nano bubbles where water and correct amount of chemical products naturally distribute themselves forming the nano bubble skin. Therefore, they can be used as the carriers of the chemicals and transmit them homogeneously onto the garment.

    This technology can contribute to a considerable number of finishing effects with the best level of quality, a maximum less amount of water and there is zero discharge of the process.

    Methodology:

    Air from the atmosphere is taken into an electro-flow reactor and subjected to an electro-mechanical shock that creates nano bubbles and a flow of wet air.

    Then the nano bubbles are transported into a rotating tumbler containing the denim samples and when it comes into contact with them produces a soft and natural hand feel. The samples are then dried even in the same tumble machine it is possible to dry up. Since denims are indigo dyed where unfix dyes are available on the surface of the fabric therefore cross staining may happen with this technology which can be eliminated through using a little bit anti cross staining agent or can treat with dry ozonator.

    The e-flow process breaks up the indigo molecules from the surface of the denim and then the process produces a pre-shrinkage of the fabric, that will contribute to avoid high shrinkage during home laundry. It also gives a softer hand feel and so the garments are comfortable to wear and with an improvement in color fastness to rubbing properties.

    Five benefits of the process:

    • It reduces 95% water and 40% energy consumption.
    • Elimination of waste water and treated chemical to the environment.
    • Superb hand feel can be achieved
    • High quality garments are treated which are being affected by conventional wash process.
    • The brightness and luster are increased



    Article is Written By
    Fazlay Rabby James
    Merchandiser
    FCI BD Ltd.

    We are here to share an example of making cost sheet where a linned jacket has been considered.

    Below is an example of the Garment Specification sheet or Tech Pack (Technical Package):
     



    Step 1: At first we have to collect FDS for shell fabric & trims fabric. Let us consider all shell fabric & trims fabric price in one sheet as bellow.



    Step 2: Now we have to send mini marker request to CAD department of your factory for consumption of all shell fabric & trim fabric. Then we have to send design pack with all shell fabric & trim fabric cut able width. In return CAD departments will send us mini marker (consumption) for all fabric and trims fabric. Sometimes it may call  YY (yield yardage).
     
    Example of a mini marker

    The style we are taking for experiment, here we will get total 9 mini marker from CAD department as bellow.
    1.    Shell Fabric
    2.    Body Lining
    3.    Sleeve Lining
    4.    Piping
    5.    Inside Pocket + Pocket Envelop (since both are same quality; 210T Taffeta Black, so two parts will be integrated in one marker)
    6.    Knit Fusing
    7.    Paper Fusing
    8.    Thread Fusing

    Let us consider consumption is as bellow for per pcs garments.
    1.    Shell Fabric---------2.2 yds
    2.    Body Lining--------1.3 yds
    3.    Sleeve Lining-----0.90 yds
    4.    Piping-------------0.12 yds
    5.    Inside Pocket + Pocket Envelop----0.06yds
    6.    Knit Fusing-----0.65yds
    7.    Paper Fusing—1.10yds
    8.    Thread Fusing-0.17 yds

    Step 3:
    We have to send the tech pack to our IE department’s concern engineer to calculate SMV.
    Let us consider garments SMV is coming 65 minutes.

    Also let us consider factory standard CPM is nearer to 0.07 so our target CM will be about 4.55 (65X0.07=4.55). Here I have calculated CM putting a formula which is mainly depends of factory standard.  Also sometimes it is not possible to consider accurate & market competitive CM as per factory standard. In that case merchant need to use his experience to offer perfect CM to grab the business also keeping company profit.

    Step 4:
    We have to collect label, button, carton, thread etc. trims price from respective supplier. Let us consider trims price is as below
    • Main Label—$0.05/pcs
    • Size Label--$0.02/pcs
    • Care Label-$0.03/pcs
    • Hang Tag-$0.05/pcs
    • Thread-$1.5/cone (Let us consider thread consumption is 0.2 cone/pcs garments.
    • Poly-$0.10/pcs
    • Carton-$1.50/ pcs (Let us consider 5 pcs garments can be packed in one pcs carton so carton consumption will be 1/5)
    • Gum tape-$0.50/pcs (Let us consider 15 pcs carton can be packed by one pcs gumtape so gum tape consumption for per pcs garments will be 1/(5X15))
    • Button-0.05/pcs
    • Carton Sticker-$0.10/ pcs (Let us consider 5 pcs garments can be packed in one pcs carton so carton sticker consumption will be 1/5)

    Step 5:
    Already we have got all shell fabric & trims fabric price in FDS, now we can make cost sheet following above prices.




    Though here profit is showing $0.82 if it is accepted by buyer but net profit will be higher than this. All factories have minimum profit limit to grab orders so this philosophy is different for respective factories.

    Retail Price: The selling price of product in shop is the retail price of the product. Buyer purchase the garments from factory in FOB price. But they also sell the garments in shop considering all cost involved in taking orders to store including company management cost with margin or profit. Depending upon customer and quality of product the retail prices become three to ten times than FOB price. 

    Garments Costing With Example | Practical Method of Garments Costing | Overview of Woven Jacket Costing

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments



    Article is Written By
    Fazlay Rabby James
    Merchandiser
    FCI BD Ltd.

    We are here to share an example of making cost sheet where a linned jacket has been considered.

    Below is an example of the Garment Specification sheet or Tech Pack (Technical Package):
     



    Step 1: At first we have to collect FDS for shell fabric & trims fabric. Let us consider all shell fabric & trims fabric price in one sheet as bellow.



    Step 2: Now we have to send mini marker request to CAD department of your factory for consumption of all shell fabric & trim fabric. Then we have to send design pack with all shell fabric & trim fabric cut able width. In return CAD departments will send us mini marker (consumption) for all fabric and trims fabric. Sometimes it may call  YY (yield yardage).
     
    Example of a mini marker

    The style we are taking for experiment, here we will get total 9 mini marker from CAD department as bellow.
    1.    Shell Fabric
    2.    Body Lining
    3.    Sleeve Lining
    4.    Piping
    5.    Inside Pocket + Pocket Envelop (since both are same quality; 210T Taffeta Black, so two parts will be integrated in one marker)
    6.    Knit Fusing
    7.    Paper Fusing
    8.    Thread Fusing

    Let us consider consumption is as bellow for per pcs garments.
    1.    Shell Fabric---------2.2 yds
    2.    Body Lining--------1.3 yds
    3.    Sleeve Lining-----0.90 yds
    4.    Piping-------------0.12 yds
    5.    Inside Pocket + Pocket Envelop----0.06yds
    6.    Knit Fusing-----0.65yds
    7.    Paper Fusing—1.10yds
    8.    Thread Fusing-0.17 yds

    Step 3:
    We have to send the tech pack to our IE department’s concern engineer to calculate SMV.
    Let us consider garments SMV is coming 65 minutes.

    Also let us consider factory standard CPM is nearer to 0.07 so our target CM will be about 4.55 (65X0.07=4.55). Here I have calculated CM putting a formula which is mainly depends of factory standard.  Also sometimes it is not possible to consider accurate & market competitive CM as per factory standard. In that case merchant need to use his experience to offer perfect CM to grab the business also keeping company profit.

    Step 4:
    We have to collect label, button, carton, thread etc. trims price from respective supplier. Let us consider trims price is as below
    • Main Label—$0.05/pcs
    • Size Label--$0.02/pcs
    • Care Label-$0.03/pcs
    • Hang Tag-$0.05/pcs
    • Thread-$1.5/cone (Let us consider thread consumption is 0.2 cone/pcs garments.
    • Poly-$0.10/pcs
    • Carton-$1.50/ pcs (Let us consider 5 pcs garments can be packed in one pcs carton so carton consumption will be 1/5)
    • Gum tape-$0.50/pcs (Let us consider 15 pcs carton can be packed by one pcs gumtape so gum tape consumption for per pcs garments will be 1/(5X15))
    • Button-0.05/pcs
    • Carton Sticker-$0.10/ pcs (Let us consider 5 pcs garments can be packed in one pcs carton so carton sticker consumption will be 1/5)

    Step 5:
    Already we have got all shell fabric & trims fabric price in FDS, now we can make cost sheet following above prices.




    Though here profit is showing $0.82 if it is accepted by buyer but net profit will be higher than this. All factories have minimum profit limit to grab orders so this philosophy is different for respective factories.

    Retail Price: The selling price of product in shop is the retail price of the product. Buyer purchase the garments from factory in FOB price. But they also sell the garments in shop considering all cost involved in taking orders to store including company management cost with margin or profit. Depending upon customer and quality of product the retail prices become three to ten times than FOB price. 



    Article is Written By
    Fazlay Rabby James
    Merchandiser
    FCI BD Ltd.

    Costing: Costing is a very familiar word in Garments Industry and can be said as a heart of merchandising. It is also known as Cost sheet, Budget Sheet, BOM (Bill of Material) etc. Actually costing is nothing but a summation of different components price of a garments. But in garments industry especially for beginners costing is considered as very difficult task to learn. This article will give a brief idea about costing through which a beginner can easily understand how to calculate the garments price.


    Below is a very common used table to do costing of a garments. Generally costing need to do in Microsoft Excel as to calculate the price of a garment some formulations are required. Before going through the costing procedure if we give an eye on below table then we will get a fair idea about costing format.

    In above chart there is some sub category to understand a costing more easily. The aim of costing is to calculate FOB (Freight on Board/Free On Board) price of a garment as buyer buys a garment from a garment manufacturer by this FOB price.
    Already I have stated that costing is just a summation of different components price of a garment. But assembling of different component price is not so easy. A merchandiser can’t put any item’s price (either Raw Material Price or consumption or SMV) in costing sheet from his assumption. Each and every item’s price has to be authentic. To get the single price, a merchant take support from different department of his factory to collect fabric consumption, SMV and also then different component price from different trims supplier.

    In a nut shell we can tell that, Costing (FOB) = Fabric Cost + Trims Cost+ CM + Wash cost (If applicable)
    To do a costing we must need below information.
    1.    Tech Pack/Design sketch/Sample of the particular garments with all necessary measurement.
    2.    FDS (Fabric Detail Sheet)
    3.    Mini Marker (Fabric Consumption)
    4.    Trims Price
    5.    SMV (Standard Minute Value)
    6.    Wash Cost (For Denim and Over dyed program)
    Tech Pack/Design Sketch/Sample of the particular garments: It is the details deign sheet by which a pattern master can make a sample pattern and can make sample. This tech pack should have all necessary measurement. A tech pack should have mention all necessary operation, stitching details, component reference etc.
    FDS (Fabric Details Sheet): FDS contains generally some basic and mandatory information of fabric like fabric price, composition etc. An FDS must need below information.

    1.    Fabric Unit Price
    2.    Fabric Cut able Width & Shrinkage Percentage (Without C/W mini marker cannot be made)
    3.    Fabric Article/reference number
    4.    Mill Name
    5.    Fabric Composition
    Mini Marker: Mini Marker is a miniature version of marker which contain fabric consumption of a particular style of garments. CAD department do this part. To make mini marker we need
    1.    Tech Pack/Design sketch/Sample of the particular style with all necessary measurement.
    2.    Fabric Cut able Width & Shrinkage Percentage
    Trims Price: Trims Price is another important part of a costing. No garments can be made without trims and accordingly without trims price it is not possible to make a costing. A merchant can collect trims price directly from trims supplier. Sometimes buying merchant source the special trims as per buyer requirement and provide trims price to factory merchant for costing purpose. 
    SMV: It denotes Standard Minute Value that states the total number of minutes take to make a garment. Industrial Engineering departments are responsible to calculate SMV. It is calculated considering time of each operation. It is necessary to calculate CM of a garment.


    Different Part of a Costing Sheet:
    Basic Information: Each cost sheet contain some basic information by which anyone can get a rough idea about the product component and merchandiser can easily track the costing sheet for further use.
    Style No: Generally costing has been submitted to buyer after submit a new development sample. And each development sample has a individual style number by which we can track the style for any further use. E.g. 001, 002, Dev-A, Dev-B, 2018MAY01, 2018JUNE04 etc.  
    Style Name : Each styling isdesigned by a designer and a designer sometimes give a particular name of that style which name sometime give a basic concept about garment item. E.g. V neck Dress, Zip through Dress, Wide Leg Trouser, Ponte Leggings, Short Sleeve Blouse, Button Trough Blazer Etc.
    Fabric Mill, Fabric Reference (Article No), Fabric Cut able Width:Fabric Mill name must need to mention in cost sheet. Otherwise it cannot be understand the fabric manufacturer of the garments.
    Fabric Reference:Besides fabric mill name, fabric reference/fabric article number is necessary to track the fabric quality for further use. This fabric reference/article is a individual tracking number given by fabric manufacturer which is unique.

    Fabric Description:Fabric description generally means the fabric composition, construction, GSM etc.

    Fabric Cut able Width:It is the cut able width of a fabric which width is declared by fabric manufacturer. Fabric cut able width is very important to calculate the fabric consumption. Without fabric cut able width maker cannot be made and as a result consumption cannot be calculated.

    Costing Quantity:In a costing generally we calculate FOB for per pcs garments. But besides calculate per PCS FOB we can also calculate total cost for each component for approximate order qty.
    Wastage/Loading: Wastage/loading is wastage percentage considered for each individual item. It also vary from factory to factory based on their policy. Many factory considered wastage in fabric but many factory considered no wastage in fabric. But trims wastage must need for each factory and in that case generally sewing trims wastage is more than finishing trims wastage. Sometimes wastage percentage depends on order qty. If quantity less, then obviously wastage will be higher.

    Fabric & Trims Fabric Cost:  This is basically shell fabric and other trims fabric cost. Shell fabric means main body fabric and trims fabric means other supporting fabric, contrast fabric, pocketing, binding, piping etc. Fusing/interlining also consider in trims fabric category.
    Trims Cost: This is all necessary trims cost for a garments. 

    Embellishment:Sometimes we have got special requirement from buyer such as printing, embroidery, heat seal etc. This is called embellishment.  A garment manufacturer generally makes a garment but they may not have embroidery or print facility. In that case garments manufacturer do this part (embroidery/print) in other factory with an agreed unit price under permission from buyer. This is called sub contract production. And this total cost (including garments transportation cost to the third part factory) need to consider in embellishment cost sheet.

    Wash: Sometimes buyer ask wash effect in garments. In that case if garments factory have not wash facility that case garments vendor do this part with other sub contract factory. 
    Test cost/ Courier Cost:  This cost required based on buyer requirement and as per agreement with buyer. Every buyer have some testing requirement and this testing need to done in third party testing company like SGS, Intertek, UL, TUV etc. To make costing of a garments we need to consider some value for testing as testing charge.

    Some buyer need some special sample like SMS (Sales Man Sample), Mock Shop Sample etc and buyer generally pay for this sampling cost and in that case we can considered this cost in costing sheet.

    Commercial Cost /Transportation Cost:To ship a goods there is some cost involved which operation is done by commercial department. This is generally a fixed value or percentage value on total cost of a garments which value cover all shipment, transportation and commercial cost.
    Miscellaneous:No expenditure is possible without budget and this budget need to consider in particular style costing. To avoid any uncertain budget short generally every factory keep some value in hand as miscellaneous cost.
    CM: In costing it denotes Cost of Making that refers the total manufacturing cost involved in making a garment. CM includes the factory operation cost to make the garments. CM of a garment depends on styling of a garment and also depends on factory standard. For easy style CM is less and in such a way for critical style CM is higher. In fact it is related with SMV and overhead cost of the respective production unit.

    Therefor, to calculate accurate CM of a garment we have to consider SMV of a garment. Also each factory has e fixed CPM (Cost per Minitue) / EPM (Earn per Minitue). If we multiply this standard CPM with SMV then we will get CM of that garments. Basically CM offer is the main output of experience of a merchandiser. By the basic rules fixed by a factory management (SMVXCPM=CM) we can calculate CM but to offer more logical CM a merchandiser should have proper market knowledge about product price. By this knowledge a merchandiser can bring the business for his company by offering logical, sharp but profitable CM.
    FOB without buying commission: If we sum the fabric cost, trims cost, commercial cost, miscellaneous cost and CM then we will get the garments FOB. But this FOB is without any buying commission. Generally we take order through local buying house and there have an agreement with factory and buying house that factory will pay a certain percentage of FOB as commission for confirmed order.
    Garments FOB: If we add this buying commission with total cost then we will get actual garments FOB which price we can sell the product to buyer.
    Offered FOB & Profit:  Garments FOB is the total cost of a garment making including raw materials cost & CM. To keep some margin on each order factory need to offer final price with some additional invisible cost as there will be some negotiation to place an order finally. 

    Need to input all the individual prices in excel sheet to that is already formulated for costing and then check with your seniors or department head to offer this to buyer.

    Garments Costing Procedure | Woven Garment Costing | Different Terms of Costing

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments



    Article is Written By
    Fazlay Rabby James
    Merchandiser
    FCI BD Ltd.

    Costing: Costing is a very familiar word in Garments Industry and can be said as a heart of merchandising. It is also known as Cost sheet, Budget Sheet, BOM (Bill of Material) etc. Actually costing is nothing but a summation of different components price of a garments. But in garments industry especially for beginners costing is considered as very difficult task to learn. This article will give a brief idea about costing through which a beginner can easily understand how to calculate the garments price.


    Below is a very common used table to do costing of a garments. Generally costing need to do in Microsoft Excel as to calculate the price of a garment some formulations are required. Before going through the costing procedure if we give an eye on below table then we will get a fair idea about costing format.

    In above chart there is some sub category to understand a costing more easily. The aim of costing is to calculate FOB (Freight on Board/Free On Board) price of a garment as buyer buys a garment from a garment manufacturer by this FOB price.
    Already I have stated that costing is just a summation of different components price of a garment. But assembling of different component price is not so easy. A merchandiser can’t put any item’s price (either Raw Material Price or consumption or SMV) in costing sheet from his assumption. Each and every item’s price has to be authentic. To get the single price, a merchant take support from different department of his factory to collect fabric consumption, SMV and also then different component price from different trims supplier.

    In a nut shell we can tell that, Costing (FOB) = Fabric Cost + Trims Cost+ CM + Wash cost (If applicable)
    To do a costing we must need below information.
    1.    Tech Pack/Design sketch/Sample of the particular garments with all necessary measurement.
    2.    FDS (Fabric Detail Sheet)
    3.    Mini Marker (Fabric Consumption)
    4.    Trims Price
    5.    SMV (Standard Minute Value)
    6.    Wash Cost (For Denim and Over dyed program)
    Tech Pack/Design Sketch/Sample of the particular garments: It is the details deign sheet by which a pattern master can make a sample pattern and can make sample. This tech pack should have all necessary measurement. A tech pack should have mention all necessary operation, stitching details, component reference etc.
    FDS (Fabric Details Sheet): FDS contains generally some basic and mandatory information of fabric like fabric price, composition etc. An FDS must need below information.

    1.    Fabric Unit Price
    2.    Fabric Cut able Width & Shrinkage Percentage (Without C/W mini marker cannot be made)
    3.    Fabric Article/reference number
    4.    Mill Name
    5.    Fabric Composition
    Mini Marker: Mini Marker is a miniature version of marker which contain fabric consumption of a particular style of garments. CAD department do this part. To make mini marker we need
    1.    Tech Pack/Design sketch/Sample of the particular style with all necessary measurement.
    2.    Fabric Cut able Width & Shrinkage Percentage
    Trims Price: Trims Price is another important part of a costing. No garments can be made without trims and accordingly without trims price it is not possible to make a costing. A merchant can collect trims price directly from trims supplier. Sometimes buying merchant source the special trims as per buyer requirement and provide trims price to factory merchant for costing purpose. 
    SMV: It denotes Standard Minute Value that states the total number of minutes take to make a garment. Industrial Engineering departments are responsible to calculate SMV. It is calculated considering time of each operation. It is necessary to calculate CM of a garment.


    Different Part of a Costing Sheet:
    Basic Information: Each cost sheet contain some basic information by which anyone can get a rough idea about the product component and merchandiser can easily track the costing sheet for further use.
    Style No: Generally costing has been submitted to buyer after submit a new development sample. And each development sample has a individual style number by which we can track the style for any further use. E.g. 001, 002, Dev-A, Dev-B, 2018MAY01, 2018JUNE04 etc.  
    Style Name : Each styling isdesigned by a designer and a designer sometimes give a particular name of that style which name sometime give a basic concept about garment item. E.g. V neck Dress, Zip through Dress, Wide Leg Trouser, Ponte Leggings, Short Sleeve Blouse, Button Trough Blazer Etc.
    Fabric Mill, Fabric Reference (Article No), Fabric Cut able Width:Fabric Mill name must need to mention in cost sheet. Otherwise it cannot be understand the fabric manufacturer of the garments.
    Fabric Reference:Besides fabric mill name, fabric reference/fabric article number is necessary to track the fabric quality for further use. This fabric reference/article is a individual tracking number given by fabric manufacturer which is unique.

    Fabric Description:Fabric description generally means the fabric composition, construction, GSM etc.

    Fabric Cut able Width:It is the cut able width of a fabric which width is declared by fabric manufacturer. Fabric cut able width is very important to calculate the fabric consumption. Without fabric cut able width maker cannot be made and as a result consumption cannot be calculated.

    Costing Quantity:In a costing generally we calculate FOB for per pcs garments. But besides calculate per PCS FOB we can also calculate total cost for each component for approximate order qty.
    Wastage/Loading: Wastage/loading is wastage percentage considered for each individual item. It also vary from factory to factory based on their policy. Many factory considered wastage in fabric but many factory considered no wastage in fabric. But trims wastage must need for each factory and in that case generally sewing trims wastage is more than finishing trims wastage. Sometimes wastage percentage depends on order qty. If quantity less, then obviously wastage will be higher.

    Fabric & Trims Fabric Cost:  This is basically shell fabric and other trims fabric cost. Shell fabric means main body fabric and trims fabric means other supporting fabric, contrast fabric, pocketing, binding, piping etc. Fusing/interlining also consider in trims fabric category.
    Trims Cost: This is all necessary trims cost for a garments. 

    Embellishment:Sometimes we have got special requirement from buyer such as printing, embroidery, heat seal etc. This is called embellishment.  A garment manufacturer generally makes a garment but they may not have embroidery or print facility. In that case garments manufacturer do this part (embroidery/print) in other factory with an agreed unit price under permission from buyer. This is called sub contract production. And this total cost (including garments transportation cost to the third part factory) need to consider in embellishment cost sheet.

    Wash: Sometimes buyer ask wash effect in garments. In that case if garments factory have not wash facility that case garments vendor do this part with other sub contract factory. 
    Test cost/ Courier Cost:  This cost required based on buyer requirement and as per agreement with buyer. Every buyer have some testing requirement and this testing need to done in third party testing company like SGS, Intertek, UL, TUV etc. To make costing of a garments we need to consider some value for testing as testing charge.

    Some buyer need some special sample like SMS (Sales Man Sample), Mock Shop Sample etc and buyer generally pay for this sampling cost and in that case we can considered this cost in costing sheet.

    Commercial Cost /Transportation Cost:To ship a goods there is some cost involved which operation is done by commercial department. This is generally a fixed value or percentage value on total cost of a garments which value cover all shipment, transportation and commercial cost.
    Miscellaneous:No expenditure is possible without budget and this budget need to consider in particular style costing. To avoid any uncertain budget short generally every factory keep some value in hand as miscellaneous cost.
    CM: In costing it denotes Cost of Making that refers the total manufacturing cost involved in making a garment. CM includes the factory operation cost to make the garments. CM of a garment depends on styling of a garment and also depends on factory standard. For easy style CM is less and in such a way for critical style CM is higher. In fact it is related with SMV and overhead cost of the respective production unit.

    Therefor, to calculate accurate CM of a garment we have to consider SMV of a garment. Also each factory has e fixed CPM (Cost per Minitue) / EPM (Earn per Minitue). If we multiply this standard CPM with SMV then we will get CM of that garments. Basically CM offer is the main output of experience of a merchandiser. By the basic rules fixed by a factory management (SMVXCPM=CM) we can calculate CM but to offer more logical CM a merchandiser should have proper market knowledge about product price. By this knowledge a merchandiser can bring the business for his company by offering logical, sharp but profitable CM.
    FOB without buying commission: If we sum the fabric cost, trims cost, commercial cost, miscellaneous cost and CM then we will get the garments FOB. But this FOB is without any buying commission. Generally we take order through local buying house and there have an agreement with factory and buying house that factory will pay a certain percentage of FOB as commission for confirmed order.
    Garments FOB: If we add this buying commission with total cost then we will get actual garments FOB which price we can sell the product to buyer.
    Offered FOB & Profit:  Garments FOB is the total cost of a garment making including raw materials cost & CM. To keep some margin on each order factory need to offer final price with some additional invisible cost as there will be some negotiation to place an order finally. 

    Need to input all the individual prices in excel sheet to that is already formulated for costing and then check with your seniors or department head to offer this to buyer.





    Article is Written By
    Bidhan Sarker
    Wash Technician
    Kiabi International Supply Services Ltd, BD liaison office.
    Contact:bdn.srkr@gmail.com


    Enzymes are one kind of protein that are obtained from fermentation method from naturally existing bacteria & fungi. The structure of Enzyme is a biological polymer and it can be found in every cell. Generally called as Cellulase & it works on cotton (Cellulosic fiber) only. Enzyme are living organisms which will attack a specific molecular group.

    Enzyme are very sensitive with parameters in washing cycle i.e, pH, Temperature & time. If any of these parameters are not up to the mark, result will not be accurate.The reaction of enzyme can be easily controlled, its biodegradable products, so they are eco friendly

    Enzyme Classifications:

    In terms of performing media pH  Enzymes are 2 types-
    •    Acid Enzyme-activate in acidic media. Bath PH should keep 4.5-5.5.
    •    Neutral Enzyme- actives in almost neutral media6.5- 7.5
    •    Hybrid enzymes- those are mixture of enzymes to get better results in any media.

    In terms of work &use there are four kinds of Enzymes available in market
    •    Amylase …. Desizing
    •    Cellulase …. For Salt & pepper effect, Stone wash effect, bio polishing.
    •    Laccase…. … bio bleaching.
    •    Catalase …… Peroxide killer. Mostly used in Knit fabric dyeing Finishing.

    Basically, in denim washing Amylase, Cellulase & catalase enzymes are used widely.

    Amylase:

    Mainly amylase are working as a catalyst which help to degrade starch materials from the fabric. During fabric production Starch type sizing materials are used on the fabric surface. So removing those is the 1st step. Other wise  maximum chemical will not affect the main fabric area and will sub react with the starch.

    Cellulase: 

    Cellulase enzymes acts as an indigo/fiber cutter tools in washing. Either it hits on the indigo surface and makes Stone washing effect or cutting projecting fibers on the fabric surface. So Basically, there are 2kinds of Cellulase using for Denim washing

    1.    Stone Enzyme
    2.    Bio polishing Enzyme.
    Cellulase Stone Enzyme has some basic nature, like-

    •    Neutral Cellulase Stone enzyme gives better salt & pepper effect with very less back staining & it’s generally come sin powder form & also retains better strength of fabric than Acidic Cellulase. 

    •    Acidic cellulase Stone Enzyme gives faster results but with too heavy back staining & cuts down the indigo color, also affects the strength of fabrics.  


    Now a day’s laundry people needs faster results in less time & money hence chemical suppliers combined Neutral & acid cellulase in such way that it works faster & with better results than acid cellulase with cost effectiveness & known as Hybrid enzyme.

    Bio Polishing Cellulase are being used to have protruded fiber removal from denim & oven fabric. This is also widely known as Anti pilling enzyme.

    Any Cellulase used in process must be cleaned/killed after the process completion by simply disturbing the parameters ie. By raising high temp. or raising pH to alkaline where no Cellulase withstand.

    Laccase:  

    Laccase is bio bleaching agent & alternative for conventional bleaching agents. This impart greyer cast to blue denim & enhances salt & pepper effect. But due to high cost & low self-life, laundries do not prefer it. Only in few cases it is using.

    Basically, this enzyme decomposes indigo molecule in some extent which causes fading the indigo color. Also, it gives a grey tone on the shade.

    Different Types of Enzymes That are Used in Denim Washing

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments





    Article is Written By
    Bidhan Sarker
    Wash Technician
    Kiabi International Supply Services Ltd, BD liaison office.
    Contact:bdn.srkr@gmail.com


    Enzymes are one kind of protein that are obtained from fermentation method from naturally existing bacteria & fungi. The structure of Enzyme is a biological polymer and it can be found in every cell. Generally called as Cellulase & it works on cotton (Cellulosic fiber) only. Enzyme are living organisms which will attack a specific molecular group.

    Enzyme are very sensitive with parameters in washing cycle i.e, pH, Temperature & time. If any of these parameters are not up to the mark, result will not be accurate.The reaction of enzyme can be easily controlled, its biodegradable products, so they are eco friendly

    Enzyme Classifications:

    In terms of performing media pH  Enzymes are 2 types-
    •    Acid Enzyme-activate in acidic media. Bath PH should keep 4.5-5.5.
    •    Neutral Enzyme- actives in almost neutral media6.5- 7.5
    •    Hybrid enzymes- those are mixture of enzymes to get better results in any media.

    In terms of work &use there are four kinds of Enzymes available in market
    •    Amylase …. Desizing
    •    Cellulase …. For Salt & pepper effect, Stone wash effect, bio polishing.
    •    Laccase…. … bio bleaching.
    •    Catalase …… Peroxide killer. Mostly used in Knit fabric dyeing Finishing.

    Basically, in denim washing Amylase, Cellulase & catalase enzymes are used widely.

    Amylase:

    Mainly amylase are working as a catalyst which help to degrade starch materials from the fabric. During fabric production Starch type sizing materials are used on the fabric surface. So removing those is the 1st step. Other wise  maximum chemical will not affect the main fabric area and will sub react with the starch.

    Cellulase: 

    Cellulase enzymes acts as an indigo/fiber cutter tools in washing. Either it hits on the indigo surface and makes Stone washing effect or cutting projecting fibers on the fabric surface. So Basically, there are 2kinds of Cellulase using for Denim washing

    1.    Stone Enzyme
    2.    Bio polishing Enzyme.
    Cellulase Stone Enzyme has some basic nature, like-

    •    Neutral Cellulase Stone enzyme gives better salt & pepper effect with very less back staining & it’s generally come sin powder form & also retains better strength of fabric than Acidic Cellulase. 

    •    Acidic cellulase Stone Enzyme gives faster results but with too heavy back staining & cuts down the indigo color, also affects the strength of fabrics.  


    Now a day’s laundry people needs faster results in less time & money hence chemical suppliers combined Neutral & acid cellulase in such way that it works faster & with better results than acid cellulase with cost effectiveness & known as Hybrid enzyme.

    Bio Polishing Cellulase are being used to have protruded fiber removal from denim & oven fabric. This is also widely known as Anti pilling enzyme.

    Any Cellulase used in process must be cleaned/killed after the process completion by simply disturbing the parameters ie. By raising high temp. or raising pH to alkaline where no Cellulase withstand.

    Laccase:  

    Laccase is bio bleaching agent & alternative for conventional bleaching agents. This impart greyer cast to blue denim & enhances salt & pepper effect. But due to high cost & low self-life, laundries do not prefer it. Only in few cases it is using.

    Basically, this enzyme decomposes indigo molecule in some extent which causes fading the indigo color. Also, it gives a grey tone on the shade.


     Article is Written By
    Bidhan Sarker
    Wash Technician
    Kiabi International Supply Services Ltd, BD liaison office.
    Contact:bdn.srkr@gmail.com


    Denim is one of the widely used and durable fabric in textile industry. Typically, Denim is a twill fabric where warp yarns are dyed with Indigo/Sulphur and weft yarns are undyed which creates Blue top & white back appearance. This is the general specification of denim. Due to the expansion of denim industry in recent years and demand of denims for fashion which are made in different combinations and it obviously appears with different innovations.

    So, considering that point of view denims can be classified in different categories which illustrates the versatility and wide range of denim developments. There are some basic type of denims are described briefly as below-

    According to the fabric weight: 

     Fabric weight per unit area expresses the thickness and the compactness of the fabric which defines the end use. It can be classified into 3 groups.

    1)    Light weight- weight around 4.5Oz-6Oz. Using for denim shirts/top items
    2)    Medium weight- Weight range around 7Oz-10Oz. Using for kids bottom items
    3)    Heavy weight- weight range around 11Oz-More. Using for ladies/men bottom items.

    According to the weave Construction & mechanism:

    Mostly denims are twill weave. But now there are some variations in terms of weave that are given as below.



    2/1twill: it seems more like plane in appearance. Tapered shedding mechanism is used in this production. 









     

    Sateen: for smooth surface and silky appearance.Tapered shedding mechanism is used in this production 







     

    3/1twill: it seems more prominent diagonal lines.Tapered shedding mechanism is used in this production.









     

    Fake knit: basically, its sateen-based twill which gives like Fleece appearance on the back side. Dobby shedding mechanism are used in the production.








     

    Broken: Broken twill construction is applied on this and after wash appearance seems flatter. Tapered & Dobby both shedding mechanism can be used in this production.








     


    Fancy: different types of dobby/jacquard mechanisms are applied in the production.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    According to the dyeing process: 

    Indigo is the main Dye for denim. But to make more variations Indigo & Sulpher dyes are combined in different ways. So based on that it can be classified as following-

    1.    Indigo Blue denim (Only Indigo)
    2.    Blue-Black denim (Sulphur top + Indigo Bottom or Indigo top + Sulphur bottom)
    3.    Grey denim (low Sulphur concentration + Vat dye)
    4.    Black Denim (only Sulphur)

    According to the Finishing processes & end uses:

    Considering the end use or special criteria it can be classified as following-

    1.    Regular denim- regular 100% cotton, cotton poly denim with basic Finishing which ensure the dimensional stability of the fabric during washing.

    2.    Selvedge denim- To Keep fabric Selvedge untwisted and used the area as styling during weaving width wise selvedge is made in different way but strong. This is basically done in weaving stage.

    3.    Stretch denim- Considering comfort in wearing elastane are using in weaving. Those denims are known as stretch/comfort denim. Those types of denim Stentering& Compacting is very important to keep the Stretch & fabric width consistent

    4.    Coated denim: Normally special types of coating consisting chemical mixtures are applied on the surface of the fabric to give a coated look. Those types of denims are used in Raw look garments manufacturing. /styling. 

    5.    Water repellent Denim: To make the Fabric water repellent wax type coating are given on the fabric during finishing. This type of fabric is used for Jacket/some special biker jeans.
    There are some other varieties like Slab Denim, Cross slab Denim, etc. But those are the variations coming because of the yarn count variations. Those can be achieved in any types. So, its not major classifications.

    Classification of Denim Fabric | Different Types of Denim Fabric

    Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments


     Article is Written By
    Bidhan Sarker
    Wash Technician
    Kiabi International Supply Services Ltd, BD liaison office.
    Contact:bdn.srkr@gmail.com


    Denim is one of the widely used and durable fabric in textile industry. Typically, Denim is a twill fabric where warp yarns are dyed with Indigo/Sulphur and weft yarns are undyed which creates Blue top & white back appearance. This is the general specification of denim. Due to the expansion of denim industry in recent years and demand of denims for fashion which are made in different combinations and it obviously appears with different innovations.

    So, considering that point of view denims can be classified in different categories which illustrates the versatility and wide range of denim developments. There are some basic type of denims are described briefly as below-

    According to the fabric weight: 

     Fabric weight per unit area expresses the thickness and the compactness of the fabric which defines the end use. It can be classified into 3 groups.

    1)    Light weight- weight around 4.5Oz-6Oz. Using for denim shirts/top items
    2)    Medium weight- Weight range around 7Oz-10Oz. Using for kids bottom items
    3)    Heavy weight- weight range around 11Oz-More. Using for ladies/men bottom items.

    According to the weave Construction & mechanism:

    Mostly denims are twill weave. But now there are some variations in terms of weave that are given as below.



    2/1twill: it seems more like plane in appearance. Tapered shedding mechanism is used in this production. 









     

    Sateen: for smooth surface and silky appearance.Tapered shedding mechanism is used in this production 







     

    3/1twill: it seems more prominent diagonal lines.Tapered shedding mechanism is used in this production.









     

    Fake knit: basically, its sateen-based twill which gives like Fleece appearance on the back side. Dobby shedding mechanism are used in the production.








     

    Broken: Broken twill construction is applied on this and after wash appearance seems flatter. Tapered & Dobby both shedding mechanism can be used in this production.








     


    Fancy: different types of dobby/jacquard mechanisms are applied in the production.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    According to the dyeing process: 

    Indigo is the main Dye for denim. But to make more variations Indigo & Sulpher dyes are combined in different ways. So based on that it can be classified as following-

    1.    Indigo Blue denim (Only Indigo)
    2.    Blue-Black denim (Sulphur top + Indigo Bottom or Indigo top + Sulphur bottom)
    3.    Grey denim (low Sulphur concentration + Vat dye)
    4.    Black Denim (only Sulphur)

    According to the Finishing processes & end uses:

    Considering the end use or special criteria it can be classified as following-

    1.    Regular denim- regular 100% cotton, cotton poly denim with basic Finishing which ensure the dimensional stability of the fabric during washing.

    2.    Selvedge denim- To Keep fabric Selvedge untwisted and used the area as styling during weaving width wise selvedge is made in different way but strong. This is basically done in weaving stage.

    3.    Stretch denim- Considering comfort in wearing elastane are using in weaving. Those denims are known as stretch/comfort denim. Those types of denim Stentering& Compacting is very important to keep the Stretch & fabric width consistent

    4.    Coated denim: Normally special types of coating consisting chemical mixtures are applied on the surface of the fabric to give a coated look. Those types of denims are used in Raw look garments manufacturing. /styling. 

    5.    Water repellent Denim: To make the Fabric water repellent wax type coating are given on the fabric during finishing. This type of fabric is used for Jacket/some special biker jeans.
    There are some other varieties like Slab Denim, Cross slab Denim, etc. But those are the variations coming because of the yarn count variations. Those can be achieved in any types. So, its not major classifications.

    © 2013 Textile Aid . WP Theme-junkie converted by Bloggertheme9
    Blogger templates. Proudly Powered by Blogger.
    back to top