Cotton Spinning Process Overview | Short Staple Spinning - Blowroom to Ringframe Process Sequence

Posted by Firoz Kabir on Tuesday, July 8, 2014 0

Cotton spinning has now completed a milestone with modern machines where processing time and machines with man power requirement has been reduced. Most of the spinning mills are now established with modern machines but the basic procedures of spinning are followed perfectly. 

Cotton is the most usable natural vegetable fiber which covers almost 60% of total fiber requirement in textile sector. After getting cotton fibers from land it should be processed with ginning machine to separate seeds from raw cotton. Little amount seed must remain with cotton fiber which is considered as trash materials of cotton where other particles also remain. We get yarn from cotton fiber with many of the spinning process and finally there about 70-72% yarns we can collect and rests are removed as wastage. If we make process for 1 kg raw cotton then we will get 750-780 grams cotton yarn. 

Cotton fibers are generally processed to spin for making two types of yarn. Carded yarn and Combed yarn. Now another technique also has been introduced as rotor spinning to make open end cotton yarns.

Process sequence and their brief description now mentioning below for better understanding of cotton yarn spinning.

Bale management:
Bale management can be defined as the judicious selection of bale orcotton fibre in order to achive acceptable economic spinning performance and consistent yarn quality. Bale management is essential for perfect and homogeneous blending. Bale management also
applicable for hossiery process and rotor. Collect samples from 100% bale. The samples are tested in HVI . Then determine all the parameter of fiber colleted. . Quality assurance department again check
whether these bales fulfill the requirements. Then all the bales are arranged under the
Bale Plucker.

Blow Room:
The cotton comes in compact bale form, which are not suitable for processing. So it have to be opened, cleaned and made free of contamination before processing. To obtain consistent parameters throughout the process, the cotton have to be mixed uniformly. All these tasks are carried out in the blow room. At first the bale arrange under the bale plucker. Bale plucker raw cotton in lump form and sends these to multimixer through air transportation for condensor. After the heavy particles being
removed, the cotton is blended and mixed in the four chamber. Then it is taken for fine opener & cleaning. Then the material sent to the carding machine for further processing via chute feed.

The carding machine mainly removes the Neps, short fibers and remaining impurities in the cotton fiber and forms carded sliver. Mainly impurities are removed at the taker in and the neps and short fibers are removed by action between the cylinder and flat. It is called the heart of cotton spinning because the quality of a cotton spinning mill is greatly dependent upon the performance of the carding machine. The card slivers are delivered in card sliver cans which are then‐feed to the breaker drawing frame.

Breaker/ Pre‐comb Draw Frame:
In the breaker draw frame 6 carded sliver cans are feed at a time and are drafted to one drawn sliver. By this, the fibers in the sliver becomes more oriented, parallelized and the irregularity of the strand decreases. Produced drawn sliver cans are then either fed to the finisher if it is card process or feed to the lap former if it is combed process.

Lap Former:
For combing, the material have to be presented to the comber machine is a lap form. So to convert the slivers into mini laps, the lap former is used. Here 26 drawn sliver cans are doubled and drafted together to form lap. The lap is then feed to the comber machine.

The comber machine mainly combs out the lap and removes any kind of neps, short fiber or other impurities present in it. It also parallelizes the strand to the maximum degree. As a result the yarn produced from this sliver possesses better quality and aesthetic properties. The produced combed sliver is then feed to the finisher / postcomb drawing machine.

Finisher / Post‐comb Drawing Frame:
The finisher is the last machine where the irregularities in the strand can be modified easily and any fault after this will pass on to the yarn. So this machine is of great importance. That is why this machine is equipped with an auto‐leveler. The auto‐leveler continuously scans the incoming slivers and increases or decreases he draft in the drafting zone to minimize any thick or thin place. 6 breaker or comber sliver cans are feed together. This machine is monitored continuously very carefully. The produced finisher sliver cans are then feed to the simplex machine.


In the ring frame, if the yarn is produced directly form sliver, then a very high amount of draft will be necessary, which will be un‐manageable. That is why the material is gradually drafted and an intermediate strand named roving is produced. A slight amount of twist is also inserted in the roving to ensure breakage free winding and unwinding of it on the roving bobbin. Then the ravings are feed to the ring frame.

Ring Frame:
In the ring frame, finally the yarn is produced by drafting the roving. Here twist is inserted in the yarn to obtain required strength. Twist is inserted by means of ring traveler. The number of turns that the spindle rotates at one revolution of the front roller is the number of twist that are inserted on the unit length of yarn. Then the yarn are wound on ring bobbins. When the bobbins are full, they are doffed from the machine automatically mechanism.

Auto Coner:
The auto coner is a machine for automatic winding of yarn on cross wound packages. The yarn is wound on paper cones. It represents an autonomous, compact winding machine, which is equipped with a splicer and electronic yarn clearer in each winding unit. The EYC continuous scans the yarn for faults using either capacitative or optical principle or both. When a fault is found then it cuts it out. Then a upper and lower arm catches the yarn and brings the two ends to the splicer where they are joined together. The joining is done by means of compressed air. Thus the finished cones are produced which are then heat set and packed in required form of packaging.

Heat Setting Machine:
Heat setting is mainly done to stabilize the twist in the twisted yarn, reduce hairiness and increase the moisture content in the yarn packages. The yarn cones are arranged on trolleys. Maximum 6 trolleys can be fed to the machine. After that the machine door is closed. Then vacuum is created inside the machine and water at 60°C is sprayed inside the chamber. Due to negative pressure, the water becomes steam. There the yarn packages are heat set in the steam for 45 min

About the Author

Md. Firoz Kabir(M.Sc in Textile Engineering)

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