Textile Dyeing Technology | Fiber, Yarn, Fabric or Garment Dyeing

Posted by Firoz Kabir on Saturday, December 21, 2013 0

Dyeing: It is the process of making colorful the substances treated as textiles like as fiber, yarn, fabric as well as garment. Dyestuffs give color to the material onto which they have been anchored by selectively retaining some of the wavelengths out of the light falling upon the surface. Different types of dyestuffs are used to dye specific fiber or yarn according to the feature and nature of both fiber and dyestuffs. Wavelength of light absorbed is 400-750nm.

Theory of Dyeing:
The forces which anchor dyestuffs molecules to textile fibers are complex and the study of them has attracted many investigators. The process consists of three stages which are -

  • Migration of the dye from the solution to the interface accompanied by adsorption on the surface of the fiber.
  • Diffusion of he dye from the surface towards the centre of the fiber.
  • The anchoring of the dye molecules by covalent or hydrogen bonds, other forces of a physical nature.

Chromophore: Every dyestuffs contains chromophore group in its chemical structure. The chemical compound which contains azo, nitro or keto group in its structure they are so called chromophore group. These are the main component of dyestuffs cause of they are color bearing group. Dyes as well as pigments contain this same group.

Auxochrome: Only dyestuffs contain this group other than pigment. The chemical compound which contain amino, carboxilic or sulphone group in their chemical structure are commonly known as auxochrome group. These are also known as color increasing group.

Hue: Hue is the word by which we can perceive the color. By virtue of it we can think of as describing color. Red, Green or Blue.

Value (lightness): describes overall intensity to how light or dark a color is. It is the only dimension of color that may exist by itself.

Chroma (Saturation): may be defined as the strength or dominance of the hue. On the outer edge of the hue wheel are the intensely saturated hues.Towards the center of the color wheel, no hue dominates and they becomes less and less saturated.

Shade: It means the deepness of color or concentration of color where maximum percent of colors are used to make a deeper shade. Usually .5-1.5% is treated as light shade, 1.5 - 2.5 is treated as medium shade and above 2.5% is treated as deep shade.

Tinctorial Power: It is the property of any dye which gives more or less reactivity capability to produce deep to light shade with the same amount of chemicals as well as dyestuffs.

Common Dyestuffs 
  • Direct dye (Specially to cotton)
  • Acid dye ( Affinity to Protein Fiber)
  • Basic dye ( Affinity to jute fiber)
  • Vat dye (Best for cotton)
  • Reactive dye (Without manufactured fiber apply to all)
  • Disperse dye (Volatile dye use to hydrophobic fibers)
  • Azoic dye (Cotton, Wool, Silk)
  • Sulpher dye (Only black shade to all fiber)

Color material can be imparted at all the stages like fiber, yarn, fabric or garment dyeing. Now garments dyeing is becoming popular among teenagers and ladies.

About the Author

Md. Firoz Kabir(M.Sc in Textile Engineering)

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