Denim Washing | Different Types of Denim Washing

Posted by Firoz Kabir on Sunday, December 15, 2013 0

In today's trend Denim has achieved much preference to teenagers as well as baby to adult as blue jeans. According to the fashionable denim garments, subjected to versatile washing techniques to obtain a worn, vintage look with various effects like as hand sand, whiskers, 3D, Nicking, Destroy etc. To produce a fading effect is the main object of denim washing without affecting the main body fabrics and patchiness, crinkles, seam puckering, hairiness, de-pilling, softened-hand feel, stabilized dimensions etc.

Denim washing involves some consecutive processes like as below-
  • Pretreatment ( De-sizing, Rinsing, Scouring etc)
  • Basic Washing (Enzyme, Stone, Bleach, Sand Blast, Acid, Garment or Rinse)
  • Cleaning process
  • Bleaching
  • Tinting (Dyeing)
  • Softening Process

Enzyme Washing
Basically denim washing directly involves to enzymatic treatments to obtain old, faded as well as vintage look of the garments. This is a bio-catalytic method wherein an ultra-soft handle effect can be produced on denim. The hydrolytic effect of enzymes causes the loss of surface fiber or projecting fiber, which improves surface smoothness and softness of the fabric. Enzyme reduces colors from the surface of the body and the effects of fading depends on the timing and availability of enzyme in the bath.

Stone Washing
This method is most common and is used to give denim an 'old-look'. Volcanic Pumice stone is one of the most important components used to abrade the surface of the fabric to obtain a surface pattern effect with color contrast and soft - handle. In this process, the fibers on the surface of the fabric are broken and removed and the inner white fibers of the warp yarn are gradually exposed. Natural patterns can be formed as the degree of abrasions varies in various parts of the garment.

Bleach Washing
This process is usually done without stones by using an oxidative bleaching agent like hypochlorite or peroxide bleaching. Before bleach washing enzymatic treatment of denim might be required. Sodium hypochlorite is normally used as it is cheap, convenient and quick. Other agents used are sodium percarbonate and sodium perborate.

Sand Blasting
This process is used to obtain localized abrasion effect. Usually, aluminum oxide granules are blasted onto the garment surface at a very high speed. The abrasion force rubs off the indigo-dyed fibres.

About the Author

Md. Firoz Kabir(M.Sc in Textile Engineering)

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