Textile fibers and their classification

Posted by Firoz Kabir on Tuesday, June 4, 2013 0

A textile fiber is a matter that can be spun into yarn or thread and finally produce fabrics There are numerous fiber exists all over the world but all of them are not textile fiber. The fibers which are only characterized by having minimum length, strength, crimp, cohesiveness, maturity, flexibility and uniformity are referred to as textile fiber. It is a matter that is either natural or man made that can be spun into yarn or thread the main element of making fabrics by different methods such as weaving, knitting, braiding, felting or twisting. In a word the material who has the ability to spin into yarn is referred to as a textile fiber. Usually, fiber has a common characteristic that it's length is 100 times greater than diameter but to be a textile fiber it would have some others characteristics except this one. Human hair is commonly known as a fiber but it is not textile fiber.

We get all the textile fiber in two different forms.
1. Staple: The fibers which have a length of minumum1cm to a certain limit of length is usually known as staple fiber. Except silk fiber all the natural fibers are staple fiber. Such as cotton, hemp, jute etc.
2. Filament: A long chain of fibrous material which are used to making yarn ( known as filament yarn) are called filament. To make yarn from filament they are used as single or as multiple. The yarn which is made of single filament is called mono-filament yarn and where more than one filaments are used is called multi-filament yarn. Silk is a natural filament and all the manufactured fibers are made as filament.

Types of Textile Fiber:
Textile fibers are divided in following three classes-

1. Natural Fiber
Naturally growing fibers are included here. According to source it is divided in the bellow three kinds

a) Vegetable Fiber
They are collected from the following different parts of plants.
Seed - Cotton, Kapok

Plant - Jute, Hemp, Flax

Leaf - Sisal, Abaca, Pina

b) Animal Fiber (protein fiber) - Wool, Silk, Cashmere, Mohair

c) Mineral Fiber - Glass fiber, Asbestos, Carbon fiber

2. Regenerated Fiber
Regenerated fibers are made from natural fiber through some chemical and physical modification . Cellulosic fibers are main element of making this type of fiber. They are Viscose, Viscose rayon, Acetate, Tri-acetate and lyocell.

3. Manufactured Fiber
These types of fibers are made by human completely. It is known as man made fibers. They develop as filament fiber with the aid of spinneret.  Unlike Natural fiber, the properties of this fiber can be determined or controlled early before the production occurs. Unlike natural, Synthetic fiber is produce in a filament yarn or filament staple yarn base on the end-use. The dimensional appearance can be varies according to the demands usage and in fact, it can be as same-like appearance and properties as the Natural fiber. Wet spinning, Melt spinning and Dry spinning method is used to make synthetic fiber. Man made fiber has more strength and durability, but less comfort than natural fiber. Common manufactured fibers are polyester, nylon, acrylic, tetron, polyacrylic, modacrylic, olefin etc.

About the Author

Md. Firoz Kabir(M.Sc in Textile Engineering)

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