What's New Here?

Man does not buy garments for temporary or one time used. When we use garments they become dirty and needs to washed off. All types of garment should not wash with general soap or detergent. Some garments need not wash, they are typically dry cleaned and some are washed but not apply in chlorine bleach or any other solvents. Water temperature is also another factor for garment washing because there might be some decorative elements which will be destroyed. So garments should be washed with the specific care instructions suggest by the seller normally. 

To take care of garments there are some symbols and details  which are recognized internationally and they are used in garment care labels. These symbols are usually known as garment care labeling code or symbols.

At a minimum, laundering instructions include, in order, four symbols: washing, bleaching, drying, and ironing. Dry cleaning instructions include one symbol. Additional symbols or words or both may be used to clarify the instructions. The water temperatures listed are provided as a guideline. Actual water temperatures obtained in the home depend on the washing machine settings (hot, warm, cold), regional water supply temperatures, and water heating settings.

To assist consumers in getting information about clothing care, the Federal Trade Commission in 1971 issued the Care Labeling Rule. This Rule requires manufacturers and importers to attach care instructions to garment. A revised version of this Rule became effective on January 2, 1984. The revisions to the Rule were based on information gathered by the Commission through public hearings and written comments. Data revealed that while consumers found care labels to be useful, they also believed labels were often incomplete, inaccurate, and inconsistent.

The revised version of the Rule makes no major modifications. rather, the changes clarify the Rule requirements and simplify the Rule language. The Commission anticipates that these changes will make it easier for industry to comply with the Rule. In turn, consumers will benefit from clearer and more complete care instructions.

Care labels often are a deciding factor when consumers shop for clothing. While some are looking for the convenience of dry cleaning, others prefer the economy of buying garments they can wash. Some manufacturers try to reach both markets with garments that can be cleaned by either method. The Rule allows you to provide more than one set of care instructions, if you have a reasonable basis for each instruction.

The Federal Trade Commission has developed this business manual to assist you in understanding and complying with the Rule. If you have questions not addressed in this booklet, write to the Federal Trade Commission, Enforcement Division. Bureau of Consumer Protection, Washington, D. C. 20580.

Wash Care Symbols and Details



Bleaching Care Symbols 



Drying Care Symbols



Dry Cleaning Symbols



 Ironing Symbols

International Wash Care Instructions Used in Garment | Home Laundering and Drycleaning Symbols for Clothing

Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments

Man does not buy garments for temporary or one time used. When we use garments they become dirty and needs to washed off. All types of garment should not wash with general soap or detergent. Some garments need not wash, they are typically dry cleaned and some are washed but not apply in chlorine bleach or any other solvents. Water temperature is also another factor for garment washing because there might be some decorative elements which will be destroyed. So garments should be washed with the specific care instructions suggest by the seller normally. 

To take care of garments there are some symbols and details  which are recognized internationally and they are used in garment care labels. These symbols are usually known as garment care labeling code or symbols.

At a minimum, laundering instructions include, in order, four symbols: washing, bleaching, drying, and ironing. Dry cleaning instructions include one symbol. Additional symbols or words or both may be used to clarify the instructions. The water temperatures listed are provided as a guideline. Actual water temperatures obtained in the home depend on the washing machine settings (hot, warm, cold), regional water supply temperatures, and water heating settings.

To assist consumers in getting information about clothing care, the Federal Trade Commission in 1971 issued the Care Labeling Rule. This Rule requires manufacturers and importers to attach care instructions to garment. A revised version of this Rule became effective on January 2, 1984. The revisions to the Rule were based on information gathered by the Commission through public hearings and written comments. Data revealed that while consumers found care labels to be useful, they also believed labels were often incomplete, inaccurate, and inconsistent.

The revised version of the Rule makes no major modifications. rather, the changes clarify the Rule requirements and simplify the Rule language. The Commission anticipates that these changes will make it easier for industry to comply with the Rule. In turn, consumers will benefit from clearer and more complete care instructions.

Care labels often are a deciding factor when consumers shop for clothing. While some are looking for the convenience of dry cleaning, others prefer the economy of buying garments they can wash. Some manufacturers try to reach both markets with garments that can be cleaned by either method. The Rule allows you to provide more than one set of care instructions, if you have a reasonable basis for each instruction.

The Federal Trade Commission has developed this business manual to assist you in understanding and complying with the Rule. If you have questions not addressed in this booklet, write to the Federal Trade Commission, Enforcement Division. Bureau of Consumer Protection, Washington, D. C. 20580.

Wash Care Symbols and Details



Bleaching Care Symbols 



Drying Care Symbols



Dry Cleaning Symbols



 Ironing Symbols

0 comments:

Costing is very important for getting an order as well as it focuses the future trends of any industry. To make a effective, profitable and competitive cost sheet one must know about all the processes involves in garments manufacturing very well. All the updated news and costs of fabric, CM of particular garments, trims, wash cost, embroidery cost, traveling cost, terms of payments must be known. Merchandiser is the key person who is responsible for the costing of any item. Now the world is becoming more competitive for garments market and manufacturing as well. So a competitive cost sheet of any item affect the growth of any company.While the industry recorded a remarkable growth in a protected market environment, it faces a series of challenges that have come to the fore in the post-quota situation, notably in areas such as:

  • Price competitiveness.
  • Faster lead times.
  • High raw material base.
  • Full service offering.
  • Access to market. "A Cost is the value of economic resources used as a result of producing or doing the things costed".

Garments costing is effectively dependent on the fabrication. We all know that there are main two types of garments are available, knit and woven. Fabric consumption is one of the main element of garments costing. You can save much with doing better fabric consumption for both woven and knit. Woven fabrics are generally calculated in yards and knit fabrics are in kgs.



The basic requirements of garments costing are-
  • Fabric Consumption
  • CM of  particular styles
  • Printing cost
  • Embroidery cost
  • Wash cost
  • Trims cost(Zipper, button, Label, Tape etc)
  • Accessories cost (Tag pin, Hanger, Price Ticket, Hang Tag etc)
  • Traveling cost

 Now the thing is that how will you get those things to make a cost sheet. For fabric consumption you can follow the consumption formulas to find out how many fabrics are required for a garment and the measurement you will get from the techpack given by buyer. Now for CM you can get assist from your manager of higher management to get a effective CM. For wash cost please see the costing manual given by buyer and for printing and embroidery will depend on styles. For trims and accessories you must follow the BOM (Bill Of Materials) given by buyer for a specific style. I am sharing a BOM with you to know well.

BOM(Bill of Materials)
Now you required a costing sheet or format where you put the item name and values to get the final FOB of a style.A well decorated cost sheet makes the job easier and faster.If you use a cost sheet there is a less chance to miss any particular costing heads when you are in hurry. Many times it is needed to know how we reach to the final FOB. A well designed cost sheet will help you trace all details of costing. Cost sheet will also gives cost break up for future reference.

If you have product technical sheet then you can calculate the exact fabric consumption of a garment. Average fabric consumption also depends on nature of the fabric, like tubular or open width fabric. Whether fabric is solid colored, check or stripe or any specific design repeat required. 

Knit Garments Costing Sheet Format:



 Woven Garments Costing Sheet Format:



 If anyone needs to get the excel format please mil me on fkweb24@gmail.com as well.

Garemnt Costing Procedure | Details of Garment Costing | Woven and Knit Garment Cost Sheet

Posted by Firoz Kabir 2 comments

Costing is very important for getting an order as well as it focuses the future trends of any industry. To make a effective, profitable and competitive cost sheet one must know about all the processes involves in garments manufacturing very well. All the updated news and costs of fabric, CM of particular garments, trims, wash cost, embroidery cost, traveling cost, terms of payments must be known. Merchandiser is the key person who is responsible for the costing of any item. Now the world is becoming more competitive for garments market and manufacturing as well. So a competitive cost sheet of any item affect the growth of any company.While the industry recorded a remarkable growth in a protected market environment, it faces a series of challenges that have come to the fore in the post-quota situation, notably in areas such as:

  • Price competitiveness.
  • Faster lead times.
  • High raw material base.
  • Full service offering.
  • Access to market. "A Cost is the value of economic resources used as a result of producing or doing the things costed".

Garments costing is effectively dependent on the fabrication. We all know that there are main two types of garments are available, knit and woven. Fabric consumption is one of the main element of garments costing. You can save much with doing better fabric consumption for both woven and knit. Woven fabrics are generally calculated in yards and knit fabrics are in kgs.



The basic requirements of garments costing are-
  • Fabric Consumption
  • CM of  particular styles
  • Printing cost
  • Embroidery cost
  • Wash cost
  • Trims cost(Zipper, button, Label, Tape etc)
  • Accessories cost (Tag pin, Hanger, Price Ticket, Hang Tag etc)
  • Traveling cost

 Now the thing is that how will you get those things to make a cost sheet. For fabric consumption you can follow the consumption formulas to find out how many fabrics are required for a garment and the measurement you will get from the techpack given by buyer. Now for CM you can get assist from your manager of higher management to get a effective CM. For wash cost please see the costing manual given by buyer and for printing and embroidery will depend on styles. For trims and accessories you must follow the BOM (Bill Of Materials) given by buyer for a specific style. I am sharing a BOM with you to know well.

BOM(Bill of Materials)
Now you required a costing sheet or format where you put the item name and values to get the final FOB of a style.A well decorated cost sheet makes the job easier and faster.If you use a cost sheet there is a less chance to miss any particular costing heads when you are in hurry. Many times it is needed to know how we reach to the final FOB. A well designed cost sheet will help you trace all details of costing. Cost sheet will also gives cost break up for future reference.

If you have product technical sheet then you can calculate the exact fabric consumption of a garment. Average fabric consumption also depends on nature of the fabric, like tubular or open width fabric. Whether fabric is solid colored, check or stripe or any specific design repeat required. 

Knit Garments Costing Sheet Format:



 Woven Garments Costing Sheet Format:



 If anyone needs to get the excel format please mil me on fkweb24@gmail.com as well.

2 comments:

The most common and traditional system of garment production is progressive bundle. Still now it has been used more than other systems.

This system of apparel  production is so called because the bundles of garment parts that are forward sequentially from one process to another. There need to complete a specific operation or component. For example neck join is a single process, through this kind of system an operator will join neck of full bundle then it will forward to another operator.


This kind of system has been called as its name from the bundles of garment parts that are moved sequentially from one to another operation. It is often referred to as the traditional process, has been widely used by the manufacturers for several decades and still in today. The American Apparel Manufacturers Association (AAMA) Technical Advisory Committee (1993) reported that 80 percent of the manufacturers use it. They also predicted that use of this type of system would decrease as firms seek more flexibility.


Bundle sizes may range from two to a hundred parts. Some industries operate with a standard bundle size of particular garments, whereas others vary bundle sizes according to cutting orders, fabric shading, size of the pieces in the bundle, and the operation that is to be completed. Some of them use a dozen or multiples of a dozen of garments because their sales are in dozens. Bundles of garments are assembled in the cutting room where cut parts are matched up with similar parts and bundle tickets.

Bundles of cut parts are transferred to the sewing section to concern operators and they are scheduled to complete the production. One operator is expected to perform the same operation on all the pieces in the bundle, retie the bundle, process coupon, and set it aside until it is picked up and moved to the next operator. In this process may require a high volume of work in process cause of the number of units in the bundles and the large buffer of backup that is needed to ensure a continuous work flow for all operators.

It might be used with a skill center or line layout depending on the order that bundles are advanced through production. Each style may have different processing requirements and thus different routing. Routing identifies the basic operations, sequences of  production, and the skill centers where those  operations are to be performed. Many of the operations are common to multiple styles in that case work may build up waiting to be processed.


Advantages of  progressive bundle system:
The of this system is of making may depend on how the production system is set up and used in a plant. It may allow better utilization of specialized machines, as output from one special purpose automated machine may be able to supply several operators for the next operation. Small bundles of fabrics allow faster throughout unless there are bottlenecks and extensive waiting between operations.

Disadvantages of progressive bundle system:
This processing type is driven by cost efficiency for individual operations. The operators perform the same operation on a continuing basis, which allows them to increase their speed and productivity but who are compensated by piece rates become extremely efficient at one piece operation and may not be willing to learn a new style because it reduces their efficiency and earnings. Individuals that work here  are dependent on other operators and the final product.

Slow processing, absenteeism, and equipment failure may also cause major bottlenecks within the system. Large quantities of work in process are often characteristic this may lead to longer throughput time, poor quality concealed by bundles of fabrics, large inventory, extra handling, and difficulty in controlling inventory of whole processing.
 

Progressive Bundle System of Garments Production | Traditional Garment Production System

Posted by Firoz Kabir 1 comment

The most common and traditional system of garment production is progressive bundle. Still now it has been used more than other systems.

This system of apparel  production is so called because the bundles of garment parts that are forward sequentially from one process to another. There need to complete a specific operation or component. For example neck join is a single process, through this kind of system an operator will join neck of full bundle then it will forward to another operator.


This kind of system has been called as its name from the bundles of garment parts that are moved sequentially from one to another operation. It is often referred to as the traditional process, has been widely used by the manufacturers for several decades and still in today. The American Apparel Manufacturers Association (AAMA) Technical Advisory Committee (1993) reported that 80 percent of the manufacturers use it. They also predicted that use of this type of system would decrease as firms seek more flexibility.


Bundle sizes may range from two to a hundred parts. Some industries operate with a standard bundle size of particular garments, whereas others vary bundle sizes according to cutting orders, fabric shading, size of the pieces in the bundle, and the operation that is to be completed. Some of them use a dozen or multiples of a dozen of garments because their sales are in dozens. Bundles of garments are assembled in the cutting room where cut parts are matched up with similar parts and bundle tickets.

Bundles of cut parts are transferred to the sewing section to concern operators and they are scheduled to complete the production. One operator is expected to perform the same operation on all the pieces in the bundle, retie the bundle, process coupon, and set it aside until it is picked up and moved to the next operator. In this process may require a high volume of work in process cause of the number of units in the bundles and the large buffer of backup that is needed to ensure a continuous work flow for all operators.

It might be used with a skill center or line layout depending on the order that bundles are advanced through production. Each style may have different processing requirements and thus different routing. Routing identifies the basic operations, sequences of  production, and the skill centers where those  operations are to be performed. Many of the operations are common to multiple styles in that case work may build up waiting to be processed.


Advantages of  progressive bundle system:
The of this system is of making may depend on how the production system is set up and used in a plant. It may allow better utilization of specialized machines, as output from one special purpose automated machine may be able to supply several operators for the next operation. Small bundles of fabrics allow faster throughout unless there are bottlenecks and extensive waiting between operations.

Disadvantages of progressive bundle system:
This processing type is driven by cost efficiency for individual operations. The operators perform the same operation on a continuing basis, which allows them to increase their speed and productivity but who are compensated by piece rates become extremely efficient at one piece operation and may not be willing to learn a new style because it reduces their efficiency and earnings. Individuals that work here  are dependent on other operators and the final product.

Slow processing, absenteeism, and equipment failure may also cause major bottlenecks within the system. Large quantities of work in process are often characteristic this may lead to longer throughput time, poor quality concealed by bundles of fabrics, large inventory, extra handling, and difficulty in controlling inventory of whole processing.
 

1 comments:

From the process flow chart of textile processing we have already known garments making is the final stage of any textile material. This is the final stage where garments are being ready to wear by the customers. Garment making is the key objective of any textile processing so we can treat this as much valuable portion of textile production. It includes the production of finished cloths. This is an integration of materials handling, production processes, personnel, and equipment that directs work flow and generates finished goods.

The below mentioned types of systems commonly used for bulk production:
To get more successful result each and every system requires an appropriate management philosophy, materials handling methods, floor layout for spreading, , cutting & sewing,  and employee training. Firms may combine or adapt these systems to meet their desired quantity they need. Industries either use only one system or a combination of two or more for a single line, or different systems for different lines in the same unit.

Progressive Bundle System:
This system of apparel  production is so called because the bundles of garment parts that are forward sequentially from one process to another. There need to complete a specific operation or component. For example neck join is a single process, through this kind of system an operator will join neck of full bundle then it will forward to another operator.


Overhead or Unit Production System
This kind of system is a type of line feeding that uses an overhead transporter system to forward  parts from work station to work station for assembly. All the components for a single garment to be advanced through the production line together by means of a hanging carrier that travels along an overhead conveyor.

Modular Production System
It is a contained, manageable work unit that includes an empowered work team, equipment, and work to be executed. Modules frequently operate as mini-factories with teams responsible for group goals and self-management. The number of teams in a plant varies with the size and needs of the firm and product line in factories.

Make Through System
Through this system only one man can make a garment alone with doing all task to complete the whole process.It is frequently done in tailors where the tailor even makes pattern or use common patterns to cut fabric and does finishing of the garment. Single person of tailor shops do all jobs from cut to pack. In this system tailors are not depended to others.

Section Production System
This system is similar to the traditional progressive bundle system. But the difference is that, instead of one line, work is divided into multiple sections. Machines of similar operations are clubbed together instead of spreading over in all lines. For example, when a man’s formal shirt is being made in a section layout – collars, cuffs and sleeves are in the preparatory sections and then send to the assembly section. This system is popular to improve line balancing and utilization of human resources.

One Piece Flow System 
In this system an operator will responsible to make his operation as single garment basis and forward it to another operator. Instead of making a bundle of multiple pieces, bundle is made with all components of a single piece. Sewing machines in One-piece-flow system can be laid in a straight line or modular line. The key advantages of this system are less through put time, less WIP in the line.

Piece Rate Production System
This is one kind of  most popular production system in small and unorganized garment industries. Though people called it piece rate system, actually it is not a production system. Whatever Production system is used as mentioned above, when operators are paid according their works  that means how many pieces produced in an hour or a day, is named as piece rate system. Where workers gets value than traditional systems and will be paid day to day basis as well.

Combinations of Production Systems 
Factories may use first processing method for producing small parts combined with modular method. This reduces the investment in specialized equipment and reduces the team size needed. Industry consultants believe that a modular system combined with a unit system provides the most flexibility, fastest throughput, and most consistent quality. This would be particularly useful for large items such as overalls or heavy coats. The UPS would move the garment instead of the operators. Each manufacturer needs to determine what is best for specific styles.

Garment Production Systems | Production Systems in a Typical Apparel Manufacturing Industry

Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments

From the process flow chart of textile processing we have already known garments making is the final stage of any textile material. This is the final stage where garments are being ready to wear by the customers. Garment making is the key objective of any textile processing so we can treat this as much valuable portion of textile production. It includes the production of finished cloths. This is an integration of materials handling, production processes, personnel, and equipment that directs work flow and generates finished goods.

The below mentioned types of systems commonly used for bulk production:
To get more successful result each and every system requires an appropriate management philosophy, materials handling methods, floor layout for spreading, , cutting & sewing,  and employee training. Firms may combine or adapt these systems to meet their desired quantity they need. Industries either use only one system or a combination of two or more for a single line, or different systems for different lines in the same unit.

Progressive Bundle System:
This system of apparel  production is so called because the bundles of garment parts that are forward sequentially from one process to another. There need to complete a specific operation or component. For example neck join is a single process, through this kind of system an operator will join neck of full bundle then it will forward to another operator.


Overhead or Unit Production System
This kind of system is a type of line feeding that uses an overhead transporter system to forward  parts from work station to work station for assembly. All the components for a single garment to be advanced through the production line together by means of a hanging carrier that travels along an overhead conveyor.

Modular Production System
It is a contained, manageable work unit that includes an empowered work team, equipment, and work to be executed. Modules frequently operate as mini-factories with teams responsible for group goals and self-management. The number of teams in a plant varies with the size and needs of the firm and product line in factories.

Make Through System
Through this system only one man can make a garment alone with doing all task to complete the whole process.It is frequently done in tailors where the tailor even makes pattern or use common patterns to cut fabric and does finishing of the garment. Single person of tailor shops do all jobs from cut to pack. In this system tailors are not depended to others.

Section Production System
This system is similar to the traditional progressive bundle system. But the difference is that, instead of one line, work is divided into multiple sections. Machines of similar operations are clubbed together instead of spreading over in all lines. For example, when a man’s formal shirt is being made in a section layout – collars, cuffs and sleeves are in the preparatory sections and then send to the assembly section. This system is popular to improve line balancing and utilization of human resources.

One Piece Flow System 
In this system an operator will responsible to make his operation as single garment basis and forward it to another operator. Instead of making a bundle of multiple pieces, bundle is made with all components of a single piece. Sewing machines in One-piece-flow system can be laid in a straight line or modular line. The key advantages of this system are less through put time, less WIP in the line.

Piece Rate Production System
This is one kind of  most popular production system in small and unorganized garment industries. Though people called it piece rate system, actually it is not a production system. Whatever Production system is used as mentioned above, when operators are paid according their works  that means how many pieces produced in an hour or a day, is named as piece rate system. Where workers gets value than traditional systems and will be paid day to day basis as well.

Combinations of Production Systems 
Factories may use first processing method for producing small parts combined with modular method. This reduces the investment in specialized equipment and reduces the team size needed. Industry consultants believe that a modular system combined with a unit system provides the most flexibility, fastest throughput, and most consistent quality. This would be particularly useful for large items such as overalls or heavy coats. The UPS would move the garment instead of the operators. Each manufacturer needs to determine what is best for specific styles.

0 comments:


Stitching or sewing can be defines as the joining of two or more parts by sewing thread to make seam line through various methods. It’s one f the key process of garment manufacturing. Sewing section is the biggest section in a garments industry. The main purpose of sewing is to produce seam.
Basic Features of Sewing Machines:
I.    They are generally available in 3 versions for sewing light, medium or heavy weight materials.
II.    With the addition of a programmable microprocessor control system.
III.    Many versions of this machine have bobbins which hold 50% more thread than the conventional bobbin.
IV.    Electronically controlled thread cutting,tacking,needle positioning and foot lifting systems have become standard equipment on these and many other machines.
The most common machine which are used in garments industries are as follows-
I.    Plain Sewing M/C 
II.    Overlock M/c (3, 4 and 4 Thread)
III.    Flatlock M/C
IV.    Button Sewing M/C
V.    Kansai Special M/C
VI.    Feed of the Arm
VII.    Button Holing M/C
VIII.    Button Attaching M/C
IX.    Bartacking Machine
X.    Fusing M/C
XI.    Ironing M/C


Advancement of Plain Sewing Machine: The modern plain sewing machine has following advanced features-


Auto needle up-down:-This one is huge. It makes sewing so many different project SO much easier! When you press the needle up/down button, it will make sure the needle always stops in either the up or down position at the end of your seam.
                           
Locking Stitch Button: Just like it sounds, this button locks your stitch for you, basically making it so you don't have to sew backward (or back-tack) at the start and end of a seam.

One Hand Needle Threader: This is a needle threader built into the machine. Usually, you pull down a special mechanism, which catches your thread and pokes it through the eye of the needle for you, so you don't have to strain to see. It's a great time-saver and minimizes frustration.

Knee Lift: A knee lift is a lever that hooks into the side of the machine and hangs over the table to your - well, to your knee. Otherwise, why would they call it a knee lift? When this apparatus is plugged into the machine, it allows you to raise and lower the presser foot by pushing the knee lift, so you can keep your hands on your fabric.

Automatic Thread Cutter: This feature is something found mostly on the very high quality machines, but it is fantastic! When you touch the scissor key, it snips your top and bobbin thread for you.

Speed Control Slider: This is like the cruise control of sewing. It helps keep you on task if you want to go slowly and carefully or pushes the limit when you're ready to roll, like when stitching long, straight seams.


Advancement of Over lock Sewing Machine:

Three Thread Overlock With A Microprocessor: Based on a regular sewing m/c this version is used for the assembly seaming of garments made up of light weight knitted fabrics.

The modernization of the machine includes a microprocessor which enables the accurate calibration of stitch tension without manually adjusting the spring tensioners, and permits automatic cutting of the thread chain at the beginning and end of seams.

  A “tractor-foot” can be fitted to this m/c when sewing seams with varying thickness.Speed of this m/c is upto 8500 rpm where in traditional sewing m/c speed is upto 6500rpm.
Advancement of Kansai Machine: Kansai Special FX series:

FX series is a versatile multi-needle, cylinder bed, double chain stitch machine with vertical looper movement mechanism.

Major features of this series are wide range of available gauge sizes (4~12 needles) , cylinder bed (420mm in circumference), elastic guide roller and Kansai Special's unique rear puller mechanism.
These features make this series popular for attaching preclosed elastic.

Kansai Special's unique UTC (automatic thread cutter) increases productivity by trimming thread accurately and leaving less thread, which curtail production cost.

Applications:
Attaching elastic and line tape to sweat pants, pajamas, trunks and similar garments. 

Advancement of Flat lock Machine:

 High Speed Stretch Sewing Machine
We are a leading company to supply a well designed and well developed High Speed Stretch Sewing Machine made with fine grade raw materials on the basis of industrial parameters.  Highly useful for kit items and garment seaming, this machine has flat lock machine has been connected with oil recycle system to avoid any leakage of the oil.       

    

Development Of The Feed Of The Arm Machine: (SX-6 T803PD-Feed Of The Arm M/C)
SX series is a 3 needle feed off the arm, double chain stitch machine with upper puller.Major features of this series are upper puller and differential feed mechanism. These features feed the fabric uniformly so that the machine can inseam jeans even at the cross seam sections.Puckering is no longer your concern.
     

Applications: lap seaming or side seaming on heavy weight fabrics such as jeans and work pants.

Features Of Some Special Types Of Sewing Machine:

Various special types of sewing machine are available in market.They are used for various purposes related to sewing.Some those are described below:

Smocking Machine: Smocking is an embroidery technique with its first recorded use as a type of hand stitching used for the purpose of producing elasticity and stretch within garments before elastic was created. This technique is also implemented to control the fullness of a piece of fabric.

Smocking is used when fashioning garments, as well as when making curtains, upholstery pieces, and clothing for dolls, among other things.
(KS-1312PS) These Sewing Machines have special type of make comprised of 12 needles flat-bed chain stitch PMD Machine. These products have intense efficiency that has maximum resistance towards mechanical deflection.

Quilting Machine:
The SINGER CONFIDENCE QUILTER sewing machine is the perfect machine for new and skilled quilters alike. With many advanced features including the DROP & SEW bobbin system,

programmable needle up/down, drop feed for free motion sewing, twin needle sewing capability, extension table and push-button stitch selection, sewing and quilting are enjoyable and relaxing. 98 stitch patterns, adjustable stitch length and width and standard accessories, including popular quilting presser feet allows for ultimate creativity.

Electronic Direct Drive Lockstitch Button Holer: HE-800B

•    Less sewing troubles with the newly designed hook
•    Beautiful sewing finishes even fine patterns
•    High energy saving by direct drive system
•    Easy and operator-intuitive operation panel
•    Comfortable sewing with less noise

Characteristics of This Machine:
I.    Lockstitch
II.    Button Holing
III.    Thread Trimmer
IV.    Direct Drive

Typical Application: Jacket, Shirt, Blouse etc.

Blind Stitch Sewing Machine:
A blind stitch in sewing is a method of joining two pieces of fabric so that the stitch thread is invisible, or nearly invisible.There are several techniques for creating a blind stitch by hand sewing. A common technique used to create a hem, or "blind hem", hides the stitches on both sides of the garment.

Blind Stitch Machine:
A sewing machine can also create a blind hem. In this case, a specialty presser foot is needed. A zigzag stitch technique may be used with a sewing machine to create a blind stitch.

Picoting Machine: This machine is suitable for decorative stitches on ladies dresses,shirts,handicraft,necktie,tablecloth etc.Applied with timing belt mechanism,providing smooth & noseless stitching even in high speed running.        

Garments Sewing Machines | Overview of Garments Sewing Machines | Recenet Development of Sewing Machine

Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments


Stitching or sewing can be defines as the joining of two or more parts by sewing thread to make seam line through various methods. It’s one f the key process of garment manufacturing. Sewing section is the biggest section in a garments industry. The main purpose of sewing is to produce seam.
Basic Features of Sewing Machines:
I.    They are generally available in 3 versions for sewing light, medium or heavy weight materials.
II.    With the addition of a programmable microprocessor control system.
III.    Many versions of this machine have bobbins which hold 50% more thread than the conventional bobbin.
IV.    Electronically controlled thread cutting,tacking,needle positioning and foot lifting systems have become standard equipment on these and many other machines.
The most common machine which are used in garments industries are as follows-
I.    Plain Sewing M/C 
II.    Overlock M/c (3, 4 and 4 Thread)
III.    Flatlock M/C
IV.    Button Sewing M/C
V.    Kansai Special M/C
VI.    Feed of the Arm
VII.    Button Holing M/C
VIII.    Button Attaching M/C
IX.    Bartacking Machine
X.    Fusing M/C
XI.    Ironing M/C


Advancement of Plain Sewing Machine: The modern plain sewing machine has following advanced features-


Auto needle up-down:-This one is huge. It makes sewing so many different project SO much easier! When you press the needle up/down button, it will make sure the needle always stops in either the up or down position at the end of your seam.
                           
Locking Stitch Button: Just like it sounds, this button locks your stitch for you, basically making it so you don't have to sew backward (or back-tack) at the start and end of a seam.

One Hand Needle Threader: This is a needle threader built into the machine. Usually, you pull down a special mechanism, which catches your thread and pokes it through the eye of the needle for you, so you don't have to strain to see. It's a great time-saver and minimizes frustration.

Knee Lift: A knee lift is a lever that hooks into the side of the machine and hangs over the table to your - well, to your knee. Otherwise, why would they call it a knee lift? When this apparatus is plugged into the machine, it allows you to raise and lower the presser foot by pushing the knee lift, so you can keep your hands on your fabric.

Automatic Thread Cutter: This feature is something found mostly on the very high quality machines, but it is fantastic! When you touch the scissor key, it snips your top and bobbin thread for you.

Speed Control Slider: This is like the cruise control of sewing. It helps keep you on task if you want to go slowly and carefully or pushes the limit when you're ready to roll, like when stitching long, straight seams.


Advancement of Over lock Sewing Machine:

Three Thread Overlock With A Microprocessor: Based on a regular sewing m/c this version is used for the assembly seaming of garments made up of light weight knitted fabrics.

The modernization of the machine includes a microprocessor which enables the accurate calibration of stitch tension without manually adjusting the spring tensioners, and permits automatic cutting of the thread chain at the beginning and end of seams.

  A “tractor-foot” can be fitted to this m/c when sewing seams with varying thickness.Speed of this m/c is upto 8500 rpm where in traditional sewing m/c speed is upto 6500rpm.
Advancement of Kansai Machine: Kansai Special FX series:

FX series is a versatile multi-needle, cylinder bed, double chain stitch machine with vertical looper movement mechanism.

Major features of this series are wide range of available gauge sizes (4~12 needles) , cylinder bed (420mm in circumference), elastic guide roller and Kansai Special's unique rear puller mechanism.
These features make this series popular for attaching preclosed elastic.

Kansai Special's unique UTC (automatic thread cutter) increases productivity by trimming thread accurately and leaving less thread, which curtail production cost.

Applications:
Attaching elastic and line tape to sweat pants, pajamas, trunks and similar garments. 

Advancement of Flat lock Machine:

 High Speed Stretch Sewing Machine
We are a leading company to supply a well designed and well developed High Speed Stretch Sewing Machine made with fine grade raw materials on the basis of industrial parameters.  Highly useful for kit items and garment seaming, this machine has flat lock machine has been connected with oil recycle system to avoid any leakage of the oil.       

    

Development Of The Feed Of The Arm Machine: (SX-6 T803PD-Feed Of The Arm M/C)
SX series is a 3 needle feed off the arm, double chain stitch machine with upper puller.Major features of this series are upper puller and differential feed mechanism. These features feed the fabric uniformly so that the machine can inseam jeans even at the cross seam sections.Puckering is no longer your concern.
     

Applications: lap seaming or side seaming on heavy weight fabrics such as jeans and work pants.

Features Of Some Special Types Of Sewing Machine:

Various special types of sewing machine are available in market.They are used for various purposes related to sewing.Some those are described below:

Smocking Machine: Smocking is an embroidery technique with its first recorded use as a type of hand stitching used for the purpose of producing elasticity and stretch within garments before elastic was created. This technique is also implemented to control the fullness of a piece of fabric.

Smocking is used when fashioning garments, as well as when making curtains, upholstery pieces, and clothing for dolls, among other things.
(KS-1312PS) These Sewing Machines have special type of make comprised of 12 needles flat-bed chain stitch PMD Machine. These products have intense efficiency that has maximum resistance towards mechanical deflection.

Quilting Machine:
The SINGER CONFIDENCE QUILTER sewing machine is the perfect machine for new and skilled quilters alike. With many advanced features including the DROP & SEW bobbin system,

programmable needle up/down, drop feed for free motion sewing, twin needle sewing capability, extension table and push-button stitch selection, sewing and quilting are enjoyable and relaxing. 98 stitch patterns, adjustable stitch length and width and standard accessories, including popular quilting presser feet allows for ultimate creativity.

Electronic Direct Drive Lockstitch Button Holer: HE-800B

•    Less sewing troubles with the newly designed hook
•    Beautiful sewing finishes even fine patterns
•    High energy saving by direct drive system
•    Easy and operator-intuitive operation panel
•    Comfortable sewing with less noise

Characteristics of This Machine:
I.    Lockstitch
II.    Button Holing
III.    Thread Trimmer
IV.    Direct Drive

Typical Application: Jacket, Shirt, Blouse etc.

Blind Stitch Sewing Machine:
A blind stitch in sewing is a method of joining two pieces of fabric so that the stitch thread is invisible, or nearly invisible.There are several techniques for creating a blind stitch by hand sewing. A common technique used to create a hem, or "blind hem", hides the stitches on both sides of the garment.

Blind Stitch Machine:
A sewing machine can also create a blind hem. In this case, a specialty presser foot is needed. A zigzag stitch technique may be used with a sewing machine to create a blind stitch.

Picoting Machine: This machine is suitable for decorative stitches on ladies dresses,shirts,handicraft,necktie,tablecloth etc.Applied with timing belt mechanism,providing smooth & noseless stitching even in high speed running.        

0 comments:

Fabric of any garment contains most values for their prices and consumption. To make a garment fabric cost is almost 50% other than all cost. For any given FOB price the price of the fabric contain significant role. Wastage of fabric is affected the garments cost other than all costs, so consumption of fabric should be more or less similar to the actual requirement of fabric to make any garment. Simply consumption shows how many fabric is required to make garment. To get more accuracy of any consumption merchandisers should follow the actual marker considering all the sizes that we can get from CAD. Sometimes we need consumption to give quick costing of any style to the respective buyers. Due to this reason we need just a concept that how many fabric we might be required for the garment. If you have to do this then you can follow the below rules it will help you. Knit Fabric Consumption for making T-Shirt or Trouser we have already discussed and now only the woven part.
 

Consumption Formula for Woven Shirt:




 Some Measurements of any shirt-

Collar- 16"
Chest - 48"
CBL -  31"
HPS - 32.5"
Across Back - 21"
SL - 35"
Arm Hole - 21"
Yoke Height - 5"
Cuff - 9"

Cut able Fabric Width - 44"

Fabric Required for Body Portion-

Length = 32.5" + 5"(yoke) + 3.5" (Al) = 41"
Width = 48"+ 5" (Al) = 53"

= (Length x Width x 12)/(Fabric Width x Unit)
= (42" x 53" x 12) / (44" x 36")
=17.25 yards/dz

Fabric Required for Sleeve Portion-

Length = 24" + 3"(Al) = 27" (Sleeve length will be deduct from from half across back length because here sleeve length have been given from HPS)
Width = 21"+ 1" (Al) = 22"

= (Length x Width x 12)/(Fabric Width x Unit)
= (27" x 22" x 12 x 2 ) / (44" x 36")
=9.42 yards/dz

Total Fabric Requirement =   (17.25 + 9.42) yards/dz = 26.75 yards/dz
If fabric wastage percent is 5%

The total fabric requirement = 26.75 + 1.3 = 28.05 yards/dz

Consumption Formula for Woven Pant:

 
 
Some Measurement

Waist - 35"
Outseam - 42"
Inseam - 3o"
Thigh - 26"
Hip - 44"
Bottom Opening - 18"


Fabric cut able width - 56"

Length = 42" + 2"(Waist Band Height) + 3"(Al) = 45"
(I have considered out seam for length but you can consider inseam along with backrise length and waistband length for total length)

Width = 26"+ 3" (Al) = 29" (In case of 1/2 thigh circular the formula will be multiplied by 4)

Fabric required for making one dz pant

= (Length x Width x 12)/(Fabric Width x Unit)
 = (45" x 29" x 12) / (56" x 36")
=15.88 yards/dz
= consider as 16 yards/dz
Considering 5% wastage
= 16+0.8 yards/dz
=16.8 yards/dz


Dear readers,
If you have any query please send a mail i will really happy if i can solve your problem as well.

Fabric Consumption Formula for Woven Garments | Woven Shirt and Pant Consumption Calculation

Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments

Fabric of any garment contains most values for their prices and consumption. To make a garment fabric cost is almost 50% other than all cost. For any given FOB price the price of the fabric contain significant role. Wastage of fabric is affected the garments cost other than all costs, so consumption of fabric should be more or less similar to the actual requirement of fabric to make any garment. Simply consumption shows how many fabric is required to make garment. To get more accuracy of any consumption merchandisers should follow the actual marker considering all the sizes that we can get from CAD. Sometimes we need consumption to give quick costing of any style to the respective buyers. Due to this reason we need just a concept that how many fabric we might be required for the garment. If you have to do this then you can follow the below rules it will help you. Knit Fabric Consumption for making T-Shirt or Trouser we have already discussed and now only the woven part.
 

Consumption Formula for Woven Shirt:




 Some Measurements of any shirt-

Collar- 16"
Chest - 48"
CBL -  31"
HPS - 32.5"
Across Back - 21"
SL - 35"
Arm Hole - 21"
Yoke Height - 5"
Cuff - 9"

Cut able Fabric Width - 44"

Fabric Required for Body Portion-

Length = 32.5" + 5"(yoke) + 3.5" (Al) = 41"
Width = 48"+ 5" (Al) = 53"

= (Length x Width x 12)/(Fabric Width x Unit)
= (42" x 53" x 12) / (44" x 36")
=17.25 yards/dz

Fabric Required for Sleeve Portion-

Length = 24" + 3"(Al) = 27" (Sleeve length will be deduct from from half across back length because here sleeve length have been given from HPS)
Width = 21"+ 1" (Al) = 22"

= (Length x Width x 12)/(Fabric Width x Unit)
= (27" x 22" x 12 x 2 ) / (44" x 36")
=9.42 yards/dz

Total Fabric Requirement =   (17.25 + 9.42) yards/dz = 26.75 yards/dz
If fabric wastage percent is 5%

The total fabric requirement = 26.75 + 1.3 = 28.05 yards/dz

Consumption Formula for Woven Pant:

 
 
Some Measurement

Waist - 35"
Outseam - 42"
Inseam - 3o"
Thigh - 26"
Hip - 44"
Bottom Opening - 18"


Fabric cut able width - 56"

Length = 42" + 2"(Waist Band Height) + 3"(Al) = 45"
(I have considered out seam for length but you can consider inseam along with backrise length and waistband length for total length)

Width = 26"+ 3" (Al) = 29" (In case of 1/2 thigh circular the formula will be multiplied by 4)

Fabric required for making one dz pant

= (Length x Width x 12)/(Fabric Width x Unit)
 = (45" x 29" x 12) / (56" x 36")
=15.88 yards/dz
= consider as 16 yards/dz
Considering 5% wastage
= 16+0.8 yards/dz
=16.8 yards/dz


Dear readers,
If you have any query please send a mail i will really happy if i can solve your problem as well.

0 comments:


The first stage in the manufacturing of garments is the cutting and for that pattern making is the base. Cutting is the process which cut out the pattern pieces from specified fabric for making garments. Using the markers made from graded patterns and in accordance with the issue plan, fabrics are cut to prepare garment assembly. This is the major operation of the cutting room, of all of the operations in the cutting room this is the most decisive, because once the fabric has been cut, very little can be done to rectify serious mistakes.

Fabric cutting can be defined as precise, accurate cutting of fabric according to the shapes of patterns that are kept on the lay of fabric. The task of fabric cutting is very important, because, any mistake in fabric cutting may create difficulties in further processes, sometimes it might be impossible to bring any amendment to such mistake.

Modern Technology in Cutting Room:
Metal blade or knife has been used for fabric cutting since hundred years ago. For last 50 years it is being analyzed to invent other modern alternatives of fabric cutting   instead of using metal blade. Machines which are now being used in fabric cutting are described below-

Straight Knife:
This machine is widely used in apparel industries for cutting of fabrics. The main parts of this machine are-base plate, head and handle.


Benefits from straight knife m/c:
1)Initial investment is low
2)Easy to maintain.
3)It is possible to cut lay height upto 10”.
4)It is possible to cut curve areas more smoothly than that of round knife.

Limitations Of Straight Knife M/C:

1)There might be deflection of knife during cutting due to more height of fabric lay.
2)Knife may be also deflected due to heavy weight of motor.
 3)It is not possible to achieve precise cutting with straight knife as compared to computerized knife cutter.
4) Possibility of accident.

New Modification in Straight Knife:
Today straight knife has been improved more than the earlier version. The machine has been collaborated with an arm hanging from a stand beside the cutting table and the thick base plate has been replaced with a small, thin plate. The hanging arm bears the whole weight of the motor as well as the machine. The standard that is now used also delicate than the earlier one. Because of this modification it has become easier for the operator to operate the machine more swiftly and easily.

Round Knife:
It is round shaped knife. The edge of this knife is very sharp. The main parts of this m/c are base plate, motor, handle, blade guard. The fabric cutting power of round knife is 10 times the power of straight knife with equal r.pm.
Limitations of Round Knife:
1) The lay height up to which fabric may be cut with round knife equals to only 40% of the total diameter of the blade.
2) It is very difficult to cut small pieces it round knife especially curved parts.
3) Skilled operator is required.
4) Not suitable for bulk cutting.



Band Knife:
This machine looks like wood cutting m/c and small in shape. The main parts of this machine are blade, motor,pully.The blade is moved through a definite slot upon the table. The blade of band knife cuts the lay of fabric at 90 angles.


Benefits from Band Knife:
1) Precise cutting is possible.
2)It is convenient to cut small parts.
3)Risk of accident is less than straight and round knife.
4)The use of template makes consistent cutting easier.
Limitations Of Band Knife:
1)Fabric wastage is more.
2)Not suitable for bulk production.
3)This method is not convenient  for cutting comparatively larger parts.


Die Cutting:
Die cutting is mainly of two types such as –Clickers and Presses. The main parts in every type of die cutting m/c are-blade, ram headdie,motor,the method of operating ram and the arrangement of maintaining the height of the ram.


Benefits:

1) This method is convenient for precise cutting of small parts.
2) Not so much time consuming.
3) This method is very suitable for knitted fabric.

Limitations:
1) Fabric wastage is more.
2) Not so much time consuming.
3) Labor cost is high.
4)Not convenient for cutting large panels.

Notcher:  
It is a special type of m/c and it’s uses are limited.Sometimes it is needed to cut small notches in garments where notch m/c is used.Notcher  machine has been invented only for cutting notches.U or V shaped notch can be made with this machine.There are some notches where heat can also be applied.The cutting knife is heated during making notch,which prevents yarn fraying after cutting.Notcher machines can only be used for making notches not for other purposes.


Benefits of Notcher:

i.    Special type of cutting machine used for special purpose where notch of fabric is required
ii.    Very useful to cut small notch of fabric precisely
iii.    Consistency is high during cutting.

Limitations of Notcher:

i.    Only notch of fabric can be cut which is the main limitation of this type of machines
ii.    Thermo fiber fabrics cannot be cut by this machine
iii.    Time consuming process
iv.    Limited use of this type of machines for fabric cutting in garments industry. 




Drills:
Sometimes in order to point different places, especially for placing pockets, for creating dart and so on this machine is used. It is used to create signs amid dresses. It consists of a motor, a base plate, drill and a spirit level. Drill may not be lasted for long time if the fabric is loosely woven. By using hypodermic drill tiny amount of color is scattered along the pores so that it can become easier to find out the signs.


Benefits of Drill:
i.    This machine is required to mark on the end of components of dresses, especially for setting pocket, dart and so on.
ii.    It can make the hole permanently for a long.
Limitations of Drill:
i.    Only used for making hole in the fabric, not suitable for cutting main bulk of any garment.
ii.    For loosely woven fabric it cannot make the hole permanently for a long.





Computer Control Cutting Machine:
The most powerful and productive machine it is where the methods provide the most accurate possible cutting at high speed. It is one of the modern machine which is featured with no maker is required to put over the fabric lays during cutting. The knives are oval shaped and very stiff which are made of stainless steel and having very high sharpness. Completely computer controlling is the prime advantage of this machine where knife itself moves according to the command of computer. So far, it is a machine of Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) and works through Computer Aided Design (CAD).
Benefits of Computer Aided Knife Cutter:
i.    It is capable to cut the fabric very fast.
ii.    Maintain maximum accuracy in cutting with the help of computer.
iii.    Suitable for bulk production in garments industries.
iv.    Controlling over the speed of knife during cutting is another most important of this machine.
v.    Defective cuttings is minimal in comparison of others cutting machine.
vi.    Knife can be moved at any direction thus fabric can be cut at any angle.
vii.    It helps to compress in lays which assist most during fabric cutting.
viii.    Possibility of accident is very low.
ix.    Without marker fabric can be cut which helps to save money as well as time.
x.    It cuts the fabrics 6-8 times faster than manual cutting machines.
xi.    A few people are required to maintain full process of cutting as a result labor cost is very low.
Limitations of Computer Control Knife Cutter:
i.    This machine is very expensive.
ii.    Maintenance cost is very high.
iii.    Few workers are required but these people should be highly skilled.
iv.    Due to incorrect command in computer with different styles, big problem might be arisen.


Plasma Cutting
After the invention of the TIG welding process during World War II it didn’t take engineers long to develop a similar process to be use for cutting.  Instead of using a tungsten electrode to fuse metals together and inert gases to protect it from oxidation, plasma cutting uses a tungsten electrode to melt the metal and a high-pressure inert gas to remove the melted material and an inert gas to protect it from oxidation.  This process was first used by Union Carbide in 1957.  

Advantages of Plasma Cutting versus Oxyacetylene Cutting

a.  No preheating is required.
b.  Faster cutting, a plasma cutter can cut 100% to 700% faster than oxyacetylene cutting. 
c.  Less heat is spread throughout the material resulting in less warping and twisting of the material. 
e.  The increase of cutting speed cuts costs by 40 to 90 percent. 
f.  The ability to cut nonferrous metals (aluminum, stainless steel, etc.), accurately and without oxidizing the ends of the metal.

Types of Plasma Cutters and Gases


1.  Mode of Operation (How it works)

a.  A “plasma arc” is a current of electricity being carried by an ionized gas is stead of a conventional conductor.  Plasma is also considered the 4th state of matter, the first three being solids, liquids, and gases. 
b.  Using the plasma arc and a high-pressure gas to direct the arc through a constricted opening, it becomes a very useful cutting tool.  The plasma arc melts the metal and the gas pressure blows the melted metal away.  Using an inert gas for pressure will prevent the cut areas from oxidizing.  For most ferrous metals, compressed air works just fine, nonferrous metals the inert gas is essential to prevent oxidation. 

2.  Types of Plasma Cutters

a.  Transferred – In the transferred system the arc is completed by making contact with the workpiece. 
b.  Non-transferred – In the non-transferred system the arc is completed by making contact with nozzle, it can produce an arc without touching the grounded workpiece and can be very dangerous. 

Types of Gases

a.  Primary Plasma Gas – used to create the plasma arc

1)  Nitrogen – Is a mixture of 30% hydrogen and 70% argon mixture. 
2)  Argon 
3)  Hydrogen
4)  Compressed Air (The most common type used in high school Ag Mech shops.)

b.  Secondary Shielding Gas – used to protect the cut metals from oxidation. 

1)  CO2
2)  Compressed Air (The most common type used in high school Ag Mech shops.)

Safe Use of a Plasma Cutter


1.  Safety is a very while using a plasma cutter, it can cut through a person’s clothes, skin, and bones just as easily as it can cut through stainless steel.  A non-transfer type of plasma cutter does not need to be grounded to create a plasma arc.  Extra safety precautions need to be taken if you are using this type of plasma cutter.  Be sure to read the manufacture safety precautions before using their plasma cutter. 

Operating a Plasma Cutter

1.  Set the amperage and gas pressure to the manufacture’s specification.  The metal thickness, type, and type of gas being used should be considered. 
2.  When making straight cuts, use a straight edge guide.  Steady you elbow or forearm on the worktable or workpiece while cutting. 
3.  Use at least a #9 gauge or higher welding helmet while cutting with a plasma cutter.  The plasma arc is just as bright as an arc using for TIG, MIG, or Arc welding.
4.  To start your cut, move the plasma torch into position.  Cover with your welding helmet and press down on the start button.  The arc will appear when you press down on the button, move the arc along the marked area where the cut is to be made.  Keep a working distance at least 1/8" and up to3/16", the distance between the workpiece and the nozzle. 
5.  After the cut is made, inspect the cut for slag, rough areas, and uncut areas.  Adjust travel speed and amperage accordingly. 

Activity:
1.  Demonstrate the proper set and shutdown procedures, according to the manufactures’ recommendations.
2.  Use the owner’s manual, take apart the torch and show students the different parts of a plasma torch. 
3.  Demonstrate cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum with the plasma cutter. 
4.  Have students make cuts using the plasma cutter.

Technologies of Modern Cutting Room of Garments Indsutry | Update Machines of Fabric Cutting in Garments Production

Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments


The first stage in the manufacturing of garments is the cutting and for that pattern making is the base. Cutting is the process which cut out the pattern pieces from specified fabric for making garments. Using the markers made from graded patterns and in accordance with the issue plan, fabrics are cut to prepare garment assembly. This is the major operation of the cutting room, of all of the operations in the cutting room this is the most decisive, because once the fabric has been cut, very little can be done to rectify serious mistakes.

Fabric cutting can be defined as precise, accurate cutting of fabric according to the shapes of patterns that are kept on the lay of fabric. The task of fabric cutting is very important, because, any mistake in fabric cutting may create difficulties in further processes, sometimes it might be impossible to bring any amendment to such mistake.

Modern Technology in Cutting Room:
Metal blade or knife has been used for fabric cutting since hundred years ago. For last 50 years it is being analyzed to invent other modern alternatives of fabric cutting   instead of using metal blade. Machines which are now being used in fabric cutting are described below-

Straight Knife:
This machine is widely used in apparel industries for cutting of fabrics. The main parts of this machine are-base plate, head and handle.


Benefits from straight knife m/c:
1)Initial investment is low
2)Easy to maintain.
3)It is possible to cut lay height upto 10”.
4)It is possible to cut curve areas more smoothly than that of round knife.

Limitations Of Straight Knife M/C:

1)There might be deflection of knife during cutting due to more height of fabric lay.
2)Knife may be also deflected due to heavy weight of motor.
 3)It is not possible to achieve precise cutting with straight knife as compared to computerized knife cutter.
4) Possibility of accident.

New Modification in Straight Knife:
Today straight knife has been improved more than the earlier version. The machine has been collaborated with an arm hanging from a stand beside the cutting table and the thick base plate has been replaced with a small, thin plate. The hanging arm bears the whole weight of the motor as well as the machine. The standard that is now used also delicate than the earlier one. Because of this modification it has become easier for the operator to operate the machine more swiftly and easily.

Round Knife:
It is round shaped knife. The edge of this knife is very sharp. The main parts of this m/c are base plate, motor, handle, blade guard. The fabric cutting power of round knife is 10 times the power of straight knife with equal r.pm.
Limitations of Round Knife:
1) The lay height up to which fabric may be cut with round knife equals to only 40% of the total diameter of the blade.
2) It is very difficult to cut small pieces it round knife especially curved parts.
3) Skilled operator is required.
4) Not suitable for bulk cutting.



Band Knife:
This machine looks like wood cutting m/c and small in shape. The main parts of this machine are blade, motor,pully.The blade is moved through a definite slot upon the table. The blade of band knife cuts the lay of fabric at 90 angles.


Benefits from Band Knife:
1) Precise cutting is possible.
2)It is convenient to cut small parts.
3)Risk of accident is less than straight and round knife.
4)The use of template makes consistent cutting easier.
Limitations Of Band Knife:
1)Fabric wastage is more.
2)Not suitable for bulk production.
3)This method is not convenient  for cutting comparatively larger parts.


Die Cutting:
Die cutting is mainly of two types such as –Clickers and Presses. The main parts in every type of die cutting m/c are-blade, ram headdie,motor,the method of operating ram and the arrangement of maintaining the height of the ram.


Benefits:

1) This method is convenient for precise cutting of small parts.
2) Not so much time consuming.
3) This method is very suitable for knitted fabric.

Limitations:
1) Fabric wastage is more.
2) Not so much time consuming.
3) Labor cost is high.
4)Not convenient for cutting large panels.

Notcher:  
It is a special type of m/c and it’s uses are limited.Sometimes it is needed to cut small notches in garments where notch m/c is used.Notcher  machine has been invented only for cutting notches.U or V shaped notch can be made with this machine.There are some notches where heat can also be applied.The cutting knife is heated during making notch,which prevents yarn fraying after cutting.Notcher machines can only be used for making notches not for other purposes.


Benefits of Notcher:

i.    Special type of cutting machine used for special purpose where notch of fabric is required
ii.    Very useful to cut small notch of fabric precisely
iii.    Consistency is high during cutting.

Limitations of Notcher:

i.    Only notch of fabric can be cut which is the main limitation of this type of machines
ii.    Thermo fiber fabrics cannot be cut by this machine
iii.    Time consuming process
iv.    Limited use of this type of machines for fabric cutting in garments industry. 




Drills:
Sometimes in order to point different places, especially for placing pockets, for creating dart and so on this machine is used. It is used to create signs amid dresses. It consists of a motor, a base plate, drill and a spirit level. Drill may not be lasted for long time if the fabric is loosely woven. By using hypodermic drill tiny amount of color is scattered along the pores so that it can become easier to find out the signs.


Benefits of Drill:
i.    This machine is required to mark on the end of components of dresses, especially for setting pocket, dart and so on.
ii.    It can make the hole permanently for a long.
Limitations of Drill:
i.    Only used for making hole in the fabric, not suitable for cutting main bulk of any garment.
ii.    For loosely woven fabric it cannot make the hole permanently for a long.





Computer Control Cutting Machine:
The most powerful and productive machine it is where the methods provide the most accurate possible cutting at high speed. It is one of the modern machine which is featured with no maker is required to put over the fabric lays during cutting. The knives are oval shaped and very stiff which are made of stainless steel and having very high sharpness. Completely computer controlling is the prime advantage of this machine where knife itself moves according to the command of computer. So far, it is a machine of Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) and works through Computer Aided Design (CAD).
Benefits of Computer Aided Knife Cutter:
i.    It is capable to cut the fabric very fast.
ii.    Maintain maximum accuracy in cutting with the help of computer.
iii.    Suitable for bulk production in garments industries.
iv.    Controlling over the speed of knife during cutting is another most important of this machine.
v.    Defective cuttings is minimal in comparison of others cutting machine.
vi.    Knife can be moved at any direction thus fabric can be cut at any angle.
vii.    It helps to compress in lays which assist most during fabric cutting.
viii.    Possibility of accident is very low.
ix.    Without marker fabric can be cut which helps to save money as well as time.
x.    It cuts the fabrics 6-8 times faster than manual cutting machines.
xi.    A few people are required to maintain full process of cutting as a result labor cost is very low.
Limitations of Computer Control Knife Cutter:
i.    This machine is very expensive.
ii.    Maintenance cost is very high.
iii.    Few workers are required but these people should be highly skilled.
iv.    Due to incorrect command in computer with different styles, big problem might be arisen.


Plasma Cutting
After the invention of the TIG welding process during World War II it didn’t take engineers long to develop a similar process to be use for cutting.  Instead of using a tungsten electrode to fuse metals together and inert gases to protect it from oxidation, plasma cutting uses a tungsten electrode to melt the metal and a high-pressure inert gas to remove the melted material and an inert gas to protect it from oxidation.  This process was first used by Union Carbide in 1957.  

Advantages of Plasma Cutting versus Oxyacetylene Cutting

a.  No preheating is required.
b.  Faster cutting, a plasma cutter can cut 100% to 700% faster than oxyacetylene cutting. 
c.  Less heat is spread throughout the material resulting in less warping and twisting of the material. 
e.  The increase of cutting speed cuts costs by 40 to 90 percent. 
f.  The ability to cut nonferrous metals (aluminum, stainless steel, etc.), accurately and without oxidizing the ends of the metal.

Types of Plasma Cutters and Gases


1.  Mode of Operation (How it works)

a.  A “plasma arc” is a current of electricity being carried by an ionized gas is stead of a conventional conductor.  Plasma is also considered the 4th state of matter, the first three being solids, liquids, and gases. 
b.  Using the plasma arc and a high-pressure gas to direct the arc through a constricted opening, it becomes a very useful cutting tool.  The plasma arc melts the metal and the gas pressure blows the melted metal away.  Using an inert gas for pressure will prevent the cut areas from oxidizing.  For most ferrous metals, compressed air works just fine, nonferrous metals the inert gas is essential to prevent oxidation. 

2.  Types of Plasma Cutters

a.  Transferred – In the transferred system the arc is completed by making contact with the workpiece. 
b.  Non-transferred – In the non-transferred system the arc is completed by making contact with nozzle, it can produce an arc without touching the grounded workpiece and can be very dangerous. 

Types of Gases

a.  Primary Plasma Gas – used to create the plasma arc

1)  Nitrogen – Is a mixture of 30% hydrogen and 70% argon mixture. 
2)  Argon 
3)  Hydrogen
4)  Compressed Air (The most common type used in high school Ag Mech shops.)

b.  Secondary Shielding Gas – used to protect the cut metals from oxidation. 

1)  CO2
2)  Compressed Air (The most common type used in high school Ag Mech shops.)

Safe Use of a Plasma Cutter


1.  Safety is a very while using a plasma cutter, it can cut through a person’s clothes, skin, and bones just as easily as it can cut through stainless steel.  A non-transfer type of plasma cutter does not need to be grounded to create a plasma arc.  Extra safety precautions need to be taken if you are using this type of plasma cutter.  Be sure to read the manufacture safety precautions before using their plasma cutter. 

Operating a Plasma Cutter

1.  Set the amperage and gas pressure to the manufacture’s specification.  The metal thickness, type, and type of gas being used should be considered. 
2.  When making straight cuts, use a straight edge guide.  Steady you elbow or forearm on the worktable or workpiece while cutting. 
3.  Use at least a #9 gauge or higher welding helmet while cutting with a plasma cutter.  The plasma arc is just as bright as an arc using for TIG, MIG, or Arc welding.
4.  To start your cut, move the plasma torch into position.  Cover with your welding helmet and press down on the start button.  The arc will appear when you press down on the button, move the arc along the marked area where the cut is to be made.  Keep a working distance at least 1/8" and up to3/16", the distance between the workpiece and the nozzle. 
5.  After the cut is made, inspect the cut for slag, rough areas, and uncut areas.  Adjust travel speed and amperage accordingly. 

Activity:
1.  Demonstrate the proper set and shutdown procedures, according to the manufactures’ recommendations.
2.  Use the owner’s manual, take apart the torch and show students the different parts of a plasma torch. 
3.  Demonstrate cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum with the plasma cutter. 
4.  Have students make cuts using the plasma cutter.

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Lean Manufacturing
Lean manufacturing is a systematic approach to identifying and eliminating wastes through continuous improvement by conveying the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of production.

Lean Manufacturing is a systematic approach for achieving the shortest possible cycle time by eliminating the process waste through continuous improvement. Thus making the operation very efficient and only consisting of value adding steps from start to finish. In simple words lean is manufacturing without waste.
Below are the few steps which are required to implement lean manufacturing
  •    Identifying the fact that there are wastes to be removed.
  •    Analyzing the wastes and finding the root causes for these wastes.
  •    Finding the solution for these root causes.
  •    Application of these solutions and achieving the objective.
 History of Lean:


Lean vs Traditional Manufacturing Process:
For years manufacturers have created products in anticipation of having a market for them. Operations have traditionally been driven by sales forecasts and firms tended to stockpile inventories in case they were needed. A key difference in Lean Manufacturing is that it is based on the concept that production can and should be driven by real customer demand.A lean organization can make twice as much product with twice the quality and half the time and space, at half the cost, with a fraction of the normal work-in-process inventory. Lean management is about operating the most efficient and effective organization possible, with least cost and zero waste



 
THE LEAN PRODUCTION GOALS:
The principal goal of lean manufacturing is to create a continuous flow of Product from raw material to finished goods and on to the customer – no stoppages, no delays, no Interruptions because of inventory scrap or yield issues, downtime or the other problems that occur in a typical manufacturing operation.
  • Maximizing value (give the customer what they exactly need)
  • Minimizing waste (eliminate anything not needed for delivering value)
  • Pursuing perfection
  • Reduce Time
  • Reduce Total Costs

Cost Reduction by Elimination of Waste
It requires constant effort at cost reduction to maintain continuous profits in manufacturing. The prime way to reduce costs is to produce only those products determined by sales in a timely fashion, to restrain excessive manufacturing and to eliminate all waste in manufacturing methods. There are various ways to analyze and implement cost reduction, from the start of designing all the way through to manufacturing and sales. One of the goals of Lean Manufacturing is to locate waste pragmatically in each process and then eliminate it. It is possible to uncover a very large amount of waste by observing employees, equipment, materials and organization in the actual production line from the perspectives of the process itself and the actual work involved. Some types of waste are obvious, but others are hidden. Waste never improves value; it only increases cost. The thorough elimination of waste leads to greater employee self-respect and to major cost reductions by preventing unneeded losses.

Creating Conditions to Guarantee Product Quality
To produce a high-quality product is the first commandment of any manufacturing company. The high quality of any product, in which many component and parts do not fail and are trouble free, must be built into it at every process. Lean Manufacturing has developed various ways to support the commitment to “build the quality into the process.” This principle gives each operator the responsibility to check quality thoroughly at every stage of work within the process, and brings product inspection directly into the process so that good products flow to the following process and defects are extracted at that point. Each operator must be aware that “the following process is a customer” and must never send a defective product to downstream processes. If equipment is defective or operates abnormally, either the machine itself or some system must be able to detect the problem and stop operation. Foolproof devices are often used as simple means for this purpose. This also makes it easier to maintain quality. Lean Manufacturing has taken many measures and expended much effort to see that, if a defect in quality should occur, we can uncover the true cause and apply countermeasures to prevent its recurrence.

Creating a Work Site with Operators in Mind

If labor is expended on a product but does not contribute any additional value to it, that labor is of no value. On the other hand, if the labor expended on a product enhances the product’s value, then that labor is of great value because it is effective. This type of effective labor use translates into showing respect for human dignity, the dignity of the employee. In the Lean Manufacturing measures have been taken so that the labor or every employee will
enhance the value of our products. One of these measures is Standardized Work. This is a way to perform the most effective sequential production without waste by rationally concentrating the work around the Operators’ movement. Some companies use a system that stresses the performance of equipment and machines. In this case, the equipment is considered to be of prime importance and the employee mere expansion of the machine. Mutual support is indispensable if each employee, who plays the leading role for his particular task, is to perform the work and improve the efficiency of the whole production process. In Lean Manufacturing the implementation of mutual support between the preceding and succeeding processes has affected highly efficient work. If the Operator discovers some problem in the work for which he is responsible, he or she is permitted to stop the line depending on the gravity of the problem. This is only possible against
a backdrop of respect for the judgment and intelligence of the employees. A work site, where every employee can fully display his own ability, can be created with a system in which the work accomplishments of each individual are a matter of public knowledge, and anyone can propose kaizen for work problems.


Awareness of Waste
Cost Reduction versus Cost Plus
Lean Manufacturing improves productivity through the principle of Cost Reduction.
With the principle of cost reduction, the sales price of a product is determined by actual market
conditions. A profit cannot be secured, thus, without first reducing cost regardless of increases
or decreases in the production quantity. This type of cost philosophy requires an overall
company effort. Cost reduction is:

Profit = Sales price – Cost


In contrast to cost reduction, there is the cost-plus principle, in which product price is
determined by combining all the costs -- such as those of raw materials, labor and other
expenses needed for production -- with whatever company policy decides is needed as profit.
Cost policy:

Sales price = Cost + Profit

The two formulas above are the same mathematically, but there is a great difference in the
emphasis each one places on the variables. In other words, cost-plus considers that the cost is
fixed. While cost reduction considers, that the cost can be effectively changed by
manufacturing methods.

Main Kinds of Wastes
Seven main types of wastes were identified as a part of the Toyota Production System. However, this list has been modified and expanded by various practitioners of lean manufacturing and generally includes the following:



Overproduction
It is unnecessary to produce more than the customer demands, or producing it too early before it is needed. This increases the risk of obsolescence and the risk of producing the wrong thing. It tends to lead to excessive lead and storage times. In addition, it leads to excessive work-in-process stocks which result in the physical dislocation of operations with consequent poorer communication

Defects
In addition to physical defects which directly add to the costs of goods sold, this may include errors in paperwork, late delivery, production according to incorrect specifications, use of too much raw materials or generation of unnecessary scrap. When defect occurs, rework may be required; otherwise the product will be scrapped. Generation of defects will not only waste material and labor resources, but it will also create material shortages, hinder meeting schedules, create idle time at subsequent workstations and extend the manufacturing lead time.

Inventory
It means having unnecessarily high levels of raw materials, works-in-process and finished products. Extra inventory leads to higher inventory financing costs, higher storage costs and higher defect rates. It tends to increase lead time, prevents rapid identification of problems and increase space requirements. In order to conduct effective purchasing, it is especially necessary to eliminate inventory due to incorrect lead times.

Transportation
It includes any movement of materials that does not add any value to the product, such as moving materials between workstations. Transportation between processing stages results in prolonging production cycle times, the inefficient use of labor and space. Any movement in the
firms could be viewed as waste. Double handling and excessive movements are likely to cause damage and deterioration with the distance of communication between 
processes.
Waiting
It is idle time for workers or machines due to bottlenecks or inefficient production flow on the factory floor. It includes small delays between processing of units.When time is being used ineffectively, then the waste of waiting occurs. This waste occurs whenever goods are not moving or being worked on. This waste affects both goods and workers, each spending time waiting. Waiting time for workers may be used for training or maintenance activities and should not result in overproduction

Motion
It includes any unnecessary physical motions or walking by workers which divert them from actual processing work. This might include walking around the factory floor to look for a tool, or even unnecessary or difficult physical movements, due to poorly designed ergonomics, which slow down the workers. It involves poor ergonomics of production, where operators have to stretch, bend and pick up when such actions could be avoided.

Over-processing
It is unintentionally doing more processing work than the customer requires in terms of product quality or features such as polishing or applying finishing in some areas of product that will not be seen by the customer . Over-processing occurs in situations where overly complex
solutions are found to simple procedures. The over-complexity discourages ownership and encourages employees to overproduce to recover the large investment in the complex machines.

The Eighth Waste – Skills
Sometimes in focusing on the elimination of the seven wastes, companies forget about the aspect of Lean that is inherent in the philosophy as it was originally developed in Japan – respect for people. In other words, the recognition that a company’s most important assets are its employees. To that end, Lean practitioners sometimes add an eighth waste to the list – skills. This waste occurs when company does not fully leverage the gifts and talents of its associates. In fact, employees may even decide to leave a company for the simple reason that they do not feel as though they are being listened to or valued, and, as such, they feel like a number in a sea of numbers.

THE BASIC LEAN MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES:


The five-step thought process for guiding the implementation of lean techniques is easy to remember, but not always easy to achieve:

1.      Value
Specify value from the standpoint of the end customer by product family.

2.       Value stream mapping
Identify all the steps in the value stream for each product family, eliminating whenever possible those steps that do not create value.

3.       Flow
Make the value-creating steps occur in tight sequence so the product will flow smoothly toward the customer.

4.       Pull
As flow is introduced, let customers pull value from the next upstream activity.

5.       Perfection

As value is specified, value streams are identified, wasted steps are removed, and flow and pull are introduced, begin the process again and continue it until a state of perfection is reached in which perfect value is created with no waste.


   
LEAN MANUFACTURING TOOLS & TECHNIQUES:
Here are some of the most important tools of lean, ones that a typical lean practitioner must be
proficient it and capable of applying:

• Value Stream Mapping
• Takt Time
• EPEI
• Leveling (Heijunka)
• Pull Systems
• Setup Reduction
• Pokayoke (Mistake Proofing)
• 5S
• Seven QC Tools
• JIT
• Kanban

Value Stream Mapping
Value stream mapping is the identification of all the specific activities (material and information
flow) as well as the resulting lead times occurring along the value stream for a particular product or
product family, usually represented pictorially in a value stream map.

Takt Time

Takt time is the rate at which product must be turned out to satisfy market demand. It is determined
by dividing the available production time by the rate of customer demand. It is a calculated number,
not a reflection of your capability. It sets the pace of production to match the rate of customer
demand.
EPEI
A measure of how frequently a process can produce all the items assigned to it. For example, if a machine is able to change over and produce the required quantity of all the high-running part types dedicated to it within three days, then the production batch size for each individual part type is about three days worth of parts. Thus this machine is making every part every three days.

Leveling (Heijunka)

Leveling is the sequencing of orders in a repetitive pattern, and the smoothing of day-to-day
variations in total orders to correspond to longer-term demand.

Pull Systems
A pull system is a system of production and delivery instructions in which nothing is produced by
the upstream supplier until the downstream customer signals a need. Pull can operate with single
units or small batches. It enables production without preset schedules.

checklists, worksheets, diagrams, area maps, etc., and may pertain to equipment use, operations,
processes, metrics, storage, safety, quality, movement in an area, or general use of the environment.

Setup Reduction (Single Minute Exchange of Dies or SMED)
SMED is a series of operator techniques pioneered by Shigeo Shingo that result in changeovers of
production machinery in less than ten minutes. The long-term objective is always zero setup, in
which changeovers are instantaneous and do not interfere in any way with one-piece flow.

Poka-yoke (Mistake Proofing)
Japanese term used by Shigeo Shingo to mean "innocent mistake-proofing," it is an improvement
technology that uses a device or procedure to prevent defects or equipment malfunction during
order-taking or manufacture. Mistake proofing devices are important to the production line in
several ways:
(1) enforce correct operations by eliminating choices that lead to incorrect actions,
(2) signal or stop a process if an error is made or a defect created
(3) prevent machine and product damage.

5S
Five S (5S) an improvement process, originally summarized by five Japanese words beginning
with S, to create a workplace that will meet the criteria of visual control and lean production. Seiri
(sort) means to separate needed tools, parts, and instructions from the unneeded and to remove
the latter. Seiton (set in order) means to neatly arrange and identify parts and tools for ease of use.
Seiso (shine) means to clean and inspect. Seiketsu (standardize) means to require as the norm that
everyone sort, set in order, and shine at frequent (daily) intervals to keep the workplace in perfect
condition, and also to make use of visual control systems. Shitsuke (sustain) means to maintain the
five S gains by training and encouraging workers to form the habit of always following the first
four Ss.


SEVEN QC TOOLS:
  •  Check sheet or tally sheet
  •  Histogram
  •  Pareto chart
  •  Cause and effect diagram
  •  Process flow chart
  •  Control chart
  •  Scatter diagram

JIT (JUST IN TIME):
Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. To meet JIT objectives, the process relies on signals or Kanban between different points in the process, which tell production when to make the next part. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals, such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. Implemented correctly, JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment, quality, and efficiency. To achieve continuous improvement key areas of focus could be flow, employee involvement and quality.
KANBAN TOOLING:
Kanban is one of most popular tools in lean manufacturing. This is a simple concept, but very effective. Kanban mainly focus on the reduction of overproduction. There are mainly two types of kanbans. They are
  •  Withdrawal kanban
  •  Production kanban

BENEFITS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING
The implementation of lean manufacturing through trying to make value flow at the pull of the customer (Just In Time) prevents and eliminates waste in your processes. Waste being categorized as part of the seven wastes: Transport, Inventory, Motion, Waiting, Over-processing, Overproduction, and Defects.
Many studies have shown that we only add value for around 5% of the time within our operations, the remaining 95% is waste! Imagine if you could remove that 95% wasted time and effort; what would it do for your operations?
  • Typically Lean will improve;
  • Quality performance, fewer defects and rework (in house and at customer).
  • Fewer Machine and Process Breakdowns.
  • Lower levels of Inventory.
  • Greater levels of Stock Turnover.
  • Less Space Required.
  • Higher efficiencies, more output per man hour.
  • Improved delivery performance.
  • Faster Development.
  • Greater Customer Satisfaction.
  • Improved employee morale and involvement.
  • Improved Supplier Relations.
  • HIGHER PROFITS!
  • INCREASED BUSINESS

Lean Manufacturing Technique for Textile and Garments Industry | Removal of Wastes Through Lean

Posted by Firoz Kabir 1 comment

Lean Manufacturing
Lean manufacturing is a systematic approach to identifying and eliminating wastes through continuous improvement by conveying the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of production.

Lean Manufacturing is a systematic approach for achieving the shortest possible cycle time by eliminating the process waste through continuous improvement. Thus making the operation very efficient and only consisting of value adding steps from start to finish. In simple words lean is manufacturing without waste.
Below are the few steps which are required to implement lean manufacturing
  •    Identifying the fact that there are wastes to be removed.
  •    Analyzing the wastes and finding the root causes for these wastes.
  •    Finding the solution for these root causes.
  •    Application of these solutions and achieving the objective.
 History of Lean:


Lean vs Traditional Manufacturing Process:
For years manufacturers have created products in anticipation of having a market for them. Operations have traditionally been driven by sales forecasts and firms tended to stockpile inventories in case they were needed. A key difference in Lean Manufacturing is that it is based on the concept that production can and should be driven by real customer demand.A lean organization can make twice as much product with twice the quality and half the time and space, at half the cost, with a fraction of the normal work-in-process inventory. Lean management is about operating the most efficient and effective organization possible, with least cost and zero waste



 
THE LEAN PRODUCTION GOALS:
The principal goal of lean manufacturing is to create a continuous flow of Product from raw material to finished goods and on to the customer – no stoppages, no delays, no Interruptions because of inventory scrap or yield issues, downtime or the other problems that occur in a typical manufacturing operation.
  • Maximizing value (give the customer what they exactly need)
  • Minimizing waste (eliminate anything not needed for delivering value)
  • Pursuing perfection
  • Reduce Time
  • Reduce Total Costs

Cost Reduction by Elimination of Waste
It requires constant effort at cost reduction to maintain continuous profits in manufacturing. The prime way to reduce costs is to produce only those products determined by sales in a timely fashion, to restrain excessive manufacturing and to eliminate all waste in manufacturing methods. There are various ways to analyze and implement cost reduction, from the start of designing all the way through to manufacturing and sales. One of the goals of Lean Manufacturing is to locate waste pragmatically in each process and then eliminate it. It is possible to uncover a very large amount of waste by observing employees, equipment, materials and organization in the actual production line from the perspectives of the process itself and the actual work involved. Some types of waste are obvious, but others are hidden. Waste never improves value; it only increases cost. The thorough elimination of waste leads to greater employee self-respect and to major cost reductions by preventing unneeded losses.

Creating Conditions to Guarantee Product Quality
To produce a high-quality product is the first commandment of any manufacturing company. The high quality of any product, in which many component and parts do not fail and are trouble free, must be built into it at every process. Lean Manufacturing has developed various ways to support the commitment to “build the quality into the process.” This principle gives each operator the responsibility to check quality thoroughly at every stage of work within the process, and brings product inspection directly into the process so that good products flow to the following process and defects are extracted at that point. Each operator must be aware that “the following process is a customer” and must never send a defective product to downstream processes. If equipment is defective or operates abnormally, either the machine itself or some system must be able to detect the problem and stop operation. Foolproof devices are often used as simple means for this purpose. This also makes it easier to maintain quality. Lean Manufacturing has taken many measures and expended much effort to see that, if a defect in quality should occur, we can uncover the true cause and apply countermeasures to prevent its recurrence.

Creating a Work Site with Operators in Mind

If labor is expended on a product but does not contribute any additional value to it, that labor is of no value. On the other hand, if the labor expended on a product enhances the product’s value, then that labor is of great value because it is effective. This type of effective labor use translates into showing respect for human dignity, the dignity of the employee. In the Lean Manufacturing measures have been taken so that the labor or every employee will
enhance the value of our products. One of these measures is Standardized Work. This is a way to perform the most effective sequential production without waste by rationally concentrating the work around the Operators’ movement. Some companies use a system that stresses the performance of equipment and machines. In this case, the equipment is considered to be of prime importance and the employee mere expansion of the machine. Mutual support is indispensable if each employee, who plays the leading role for his particular task, is to perform the work and improve the efficiency of the whole production process. In Lean Manufacturing the implementation of mutual support between the preceding and succeeding processes has affected highly efficient work. If the Operator discovers some problem in the work for which he is responsible, he or she is permitted to stop the line depending on the gravity of the problem. This is only possible against
a backdrop of respect for the judgment and intelligence of the employees. A work site, where every employee can fully display his own ability, can be created with a system in which the work accomplishments of each individual are a matter of public knowledge, and anyone can propose kaizen for work problems.


Awareness of Waste
Cost Reduction versus Cost Plus
Lean Manufacturing improves productivity through the principle of Cost Reduction.
With the principle of cost reduction, the sales price of a product is determined by actual market
conditions. A profit cannot be secured, thus, without first reducing cost regardless of increases
or decreases in the production quantity. This type of cost philosophy requires an overall
company effort. Cost reduction is:

Profit = Sales price – Cost


In contrast to cost reduction, there is the cost-plus principle, in which product price is
determined by combining all the costs -- such as those of raw materials, labor and other
expenses needed for production -- with whatever company policy decides is needed as profit.
Cost policy:

Sales price = Cost + Profit

The two formulas above are the same mathematically, but there is a great difference in the
emphasis each one places on the variables. In other words, cost-plus considers that the cost is
fixed. While cost reduction considers, that the cost can be effectively changed by
manufacturing methods.

Main Kinds of Wastes
Seven main types of wastes were identified as a part of the Toyota Production System. However, this list has been modified and expanded by various practitioners of lean manufacturing and generally includes the following:



Overproduction
It is unnecessary to produce more than the customer demands, or producing it too early before it is needed. This increases the risk of obsolescence and the risk of producing the wrong thing. It tends to lead to excessive lead and storage times. In addition, it leads to excessive work-in-process stocks which result in the physical dislocation of operations with consequent poorer communication

Defects
In addition to physical defects which directly add to the costs of goods sold, this may include errors in paperwork, late delivery, production according to incorrect specifications, use of too much raw materials or generation of unnecessary scrap. When defect occurs, rework may be required; otherwise the product will be scrapped. Generation of defects will not only waste material and labor resources, but it will also create material shortages, hinder meeting schedules, create idle time at subsequent workstations and extend the manufacturing lead time.

Inventory
It means having unnecessarily high levels of raw materials, works-in-process and finished products. Extra inventory leads to higher inventory financing costs, higher storage costs and higher defect rates. It tends to increase lead time, prevents rapid identification of problems and increase space requirements. In order to conduct effective purchasing, it is especially necessary to eliminate inventory due to incorrect lead times.

Transportation
It includes any movement of materials that does not add any value to the product, such as moving materials between workstations. Transportation between processing stages results in prolonging production cycle times, the inefficient use of labor and space. Any movement in the
firms could be viewed as waste. Double handling and excessive movements are likely to cause damage and deterioration with the distance of communication between 
processes.
Waiting
It is idle time for workers or machines due to bottlenecks or inefficient production flow on the factory floor. It includes small delays between processing of units.When time is being used ineffectively, then the waste of waiting occurs. This waste occurs whenever goods are not moving or being worked on. This waste affects both goods and workers, each spending time waiting. Waiting time for workers may be used for training or maintenance activities and should not result in overproduction

Motion
It includes any unnecessary physical motions or walking by workers which divert them from actual processing work. This might include walking around the factory floor to look for a tool, or even unnecessary or difficult physical movements, due to poorly designed ergonomics, which slow down the workers. It involves poor ergonomics of production, where operators have to stretch, bend and pick up when such actions could be avoided.

Over-processing
It is unintentionally doing more processing work than the customer requires in terms of product quality or features such as polishing or applying finishing in some areas of product that will not be seen by the customer . Over-processing occurs in situations where overly complex
solutions are found to simple procedures. The over-complexity discourages ownership and encourages employees to overproduce to recover the large investment in the complex machines.

The Eighth Waste – Skills
Sometimes in focusing on the elimination of the seven wastes, companies forget about the aspect of Lean that is inherent in the philosophy as it was originally developed in Japan – respect for people. In other words, the recognition that a company’s most important assets are its employees. To that end, Lean practitioners sometimes add an eighth waste to the list – skills. This waste occurs when company does not fully leverage the gifts and talents of its associates. In fact, employees may even decide to leave a company for the simple reason that they do not feel as though they are being listened to or valued, and, as such, they feel like a number in a sea of numbers.

THE BASIC LEAN MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES:


The five-step thought process for guiding the implementation of lean techniques is easy to remember, but not always easy to achieve:

1.      Value
Specify value from the standpoint of the end customer by product family.

2.       Value stream mapping
Identify all the steps in the value stream for each product family, eliminating whenever possible those steps that do not create value.

3.       Flow
Make the value-creating steps occur in tight sequence so the product will flow smoothly toward the customer.

4.       Pull
As flow is introduced, let customers pull value from the next upstream activity.

5.       Perfection

As value is specified, value streams are identified, wasted steps are removed, and flow and pull are introduced, begin the process again and continue it until a state of perfection is reached in which perfect value is created with no waste.


   
LEAN MANUFACTURING TOOLS & TECHNIQUES:
Here are some of the most important tools of lean, ones that a typical lean practitioner must be
proficient it and capable of applying:

• Value Stream Mapping
• Takt Time
• EPEI
• Leveling (Heijunka)
• Pull Systems
• Setup Reduction
• Pokayoke (Mistake Proofing)
• 5S
• Seven QC Tools
• JIT
• Kanban

Value Stream Mapping
Value stream mapping is the identification of all the specific activities (material and information
flow) as well as the resulting lead times occurring along the value stream for a particular product or
product family, usually represented pictorially in a value stream map.

Takt Time

Takt time is the rate at which product must be turned out to satisfy market demand. It is determined
by dividing the available production time by the rate of customer demand. It is a calculated number,
not a reflection of your capability. It sets the pace of production to match the rate of customer
demand.
EPEI
A measure of how frequently a process can produce all the items assigned to it. For example, if a machine is able to change over and produce the required quantity of all the high-running part types dedicated to it within three days, then the production batch size for each individual part type is about three days worth of parts. Thus this machine is making every part every three days.

Leveling (Heijunka)

Leveling is the sequencing of orders in a repetitive pattern, and the smoothing of day-to-day
variations in total orders to correspond to longer-term demand.

Pull Systems
A pull system is a system of production and delivery instructions in which nothing is produced by
the upstream supplier until the downstream customer signals a need. Pull can operate with single
units or small batches. It enables production without preset schedules.

checklists, worksheets, diagrams, area maps, etc., and may pertain to equipment use, operations,
processes, metrics, storage, safety, quality, movement in an area, or general use of the environment.

Setup Reduction (Single Minute Exchange of Dies or SMED)
SMED is a series of operator techniques pioneered by Shigeo Shingo that result in changeovers of
production machinery in less than ten minutes. The long-term objective is always zero setup, in
which changeovers are instantaneous and do not interfere in any way with one-piece flow.

Poka-yoke (Mistake Proofing)
Japanese term used by Shigeo Shingo to mean "innocent mistake-proofing," it is an improvement
technology that uses a device or procedure to prevent defects or equipment malfunction during
order-taking or manufacture. Mistake proofing devices are important to the production line in
several ways:
(1) enforce correct operations by eliminating choices that lead to incorrect actions,
(2) signal or stop a process if an error is made or a defect created
(3) prevent machine and product damage.

5S
Five S (5S) an improvement process, originally summarized by five Japanese words beginning
with S, to create a workplace that will meet the criteria of visual control and lean production. Seiri
(sort) means to separate needed tools, parts, and instructions from the unneeded and to remove
the latter. Seiton (set in order) means to neatly arrange and identify parts and tools for ease of use.
Seiso (shine) means to clean and inspect. Seiketsu (standardize) means to require as the norm that
everyone sort, set in order, and shine at frequent (daily) intervals to keep the workplace in perfect
condition, and also to make use of visual control systems. Shitsuke (sustain) means to maintain the
five S gains by training and encouraging workers to form the habit of always following the first
four Ss.


SEVEN QC TOOLS:
  •  Check sheet or tally sheet
  •  Histogram
  •  Pareto chart
  •  Cause and effect diagram
  •  Process flow chart
  •  Control chart
  •  Scatter diagram

JIT (JUST IN TIME):
Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. To meet JIT objectives, the process relies on signals or Kanban between different points in the process, which tell production when to make the next part. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals, such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. Implemented correctly, JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment, quality, and efficiency. To achieve continuous improvement key areas of focus could be flow, employee involvement and quality.
KANBAN TOOLING:
Kanban is one of most popular tools in lean manufacturing. This is a simple concept, but very effective. Kanban mainly focus on the reduction of overproduction. There are mainly two types of kanbans. They are
  •  Withdrawal kanban
  •  Production kanban

BENEFITS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING
The implementation of lean manufacturing through trying to make value flow at the pull of the customer (Just In Time) prevents and eliminates waste in your processes. Waste being categorized as part of the seven wastes: Transport, Inventory, Motion, Waiting, Over-processing, Overproduction, and Defects.
Many studies have shown that we only add value for around 5% of the time within our operations, the remaining 95% is waste! Imagine if you could remove that 95% wasted time and effort; what would it do for your operations?
  • Typically Lean will improve;
  • Quality performance, fewer defects and rework (in house and at customer).
  • Fewer Machine and Process Breakdowns.
  • Lower levels of Inventory.
  • Greater levels of Stock Turnover.
  • Less Space Required.
  • Higher efficiencies, more output per man hour.
  • Improved delivery performance.
  • Faster Development.
  • Greater Customer Satisfaction.
  • Improved employee morale and involvement.
  • Improved Supplier Relations.
  • HIGHER PROFITS!
  • INCREASED BUSINESS

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 The 5 'S' Process: Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, Shitsuke
     
The 5S Process, or simply "5S", is a structured program to systematically achieve total organization, cleanliness, and standardization in the workplace. A well-organized workplace results in a safer, more efficient, and more productive operation.  It boosts the morale of the workers, promoting a sense of pride in their work and ownership of their responsibilities.

According to the Free Encyclopedia (Wikepedia) -
5S is the name of a workplace organization method that uses a list of five Japanese words: seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu, and shitsuke. Transliterated or translated into English, they all start with the letter "S". The list describes how to organize a work space for efficiency and effectiveness by identifying and storing the items used, maintaining the area and items, and sustaining the new order. The decision-making process usually comes from a dialogue about standardization, which builds understanding among employees of how they should do the work.

"5S" was invented in Japan, and stands for five (5) Japanese words that start with the letter 'S': Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke.  Table 1 shows what these individual words mean. An equivalent set of five 'S' words in English have likewise been adopted by many, to preserve the "5S" acronym in English usage. These are: Sort, Set (in place), Shine, Standardize, and Sustain.  Some purists do not agree with these English words -
they argue that these words have lost the essence of the original 5 Japanese words.

The 5S practice is a technique used to establish and maintain quality environment in an organization. The name stands for five Japanese words: Seiri , Seiton, Seiso , Seiketsu and Shitsuke .  The English equivalent , their meanings and typical examples are shown in the following table:


Objectives of 5S
  • Promote Safety
  • Improve Work Flow
  • Better Product Quality
  • Reduce Inventory Waste
  • Give People Control of Their Workplace

Benefits of 5S   
  • Clean work place
  • Reduction in materials handling
  • Reduced lead time and cycle time
  • Reduced search time
  • Reduced changeover time
  • Decrease in flow distance
  • Increased floor space
  • Reduced equipment breakdowns
  • Improves workplace safety
  • Fewer hazards
  • Establishes standards for operating equipment and conducting processes Less spending on          replacing lost or damaged items
  • Less stress and tiredness
  • Improved morale and pride in the workplace
  • Greater self-esteem
  • Improvement of communication
  • Increase in productivity
  • Fast work
  • Improved appearance of the facility and expectation for compliance to maintain that condition
  • Better and constant quality of products, services
  • Training time reduced for new employees
  • Greater efficiency in achieving goals
  • Greater readiness for new tasks
  • Better impression on clients
  
Explanation of 5-S Process
                      
Seiri (Sort/Organization)     
The first step of the "5S" process, seiri, refers to the act of throwing away all unwanted, unnecessary, and unrelated materials in the workplace.  People involved in Seiri must not feel sorry about having to throw away things. The idea is to ensure that everything left in the workplace is related to work. Even the number of necessary items in the workplace must be kept to its absolute minimum. Because of seiri, simplification of tasks, effective use of space, and careful purchase of items follow.

Main Features of Seiri-
  • Remove unnecessary items and dispose of them properly
  • Make work easy by eliminating obstacles
  • Provide no chance of being disturbed with unnecessary items
  • Prevent accumulation of unnecessary items

 Organization is about separating the things which are necessary for the job from those that are not and keeping the number of the necessary once as low as possible and at a convenient location.
Stratification Management
The art of organization is in stratification management. It involves deciding how important something is and then reducing the non essential inventory. At the same time stratification management ensures that the essential things are close at hand for maximum efficiency. Thus the key to good stratification management is the ability to make these decisions about usage frequency and to ensure that things are in their proper places. It is just as important to have the things you do not need far from hand as it is to have the things you do close at hand. It is just as important to be able to throw out a broken or defective part as it is to be able to fix it. A summary of organizing things is shown in table below.



Differentiation between Need and Want
Many people do confuse between need and  want. Most of us have a colleague who has collected 60 trade magazines in his shelf over the last five years and claims that he wants to keep all of them for reference. If you ask him “Which of the 60 magazines do you need ?”, he would probably scratch his head and say “ I do not know what you are talking about .” However , if you formulate you question the following way: “Which of these 60 magazines have you not been touching over the last year?”, you should not be surprised to find that the answer is 50.
Most people tend to err in the beginning , on the conservative side of saving things ‘just in case’. But it is crucial that management make a decision. Is it needed? If not, get rid of it. If yes, how much of it is needed? Get rid of the rest. If something is borrowed , return it to its owner.



Seiton ( Shine/ Neatness)
Seiton, or orderliness, is all about efficiency.  This step consists of putting everything in an assigned place so that it can be accessed or retrieved quickly, as well as returned in that same place quickly.  If everyone has quick access to an item or materials, work flow becomes efficient, and the worker becomes productive.  The correct place, position, or holder for every tool, item, or material must be chosen carefully in relation to how the work will be performed and who will use them.  Every single item must be allocated its own place for safekeeping, and each location must be labeled for easy identification of what it's for. 

Main Features of Seiton-
  • Arrange necessary items in order so they can be easily picked for use
  •  Prevent loss and waste of time
  • Make it easy to find and pick up necessary items
  • Ensure first-come-first-serve basis
  • Make work flow smooth and easy
  • Can also be translated as "set in order"

Neatness is a study of efficiency. It is question of how quickly you can get the things you need and how quickly you can put them away. Just making an arbitrary decision on where things go is not going to make you any faster. Instead, you have to analyze why getting things out and putting them away takes so long. You have to study this for both the people using the things frequently and those who seldom use them. You have to devise a system that everyone can understand. There are four steps in achieving neatness:

Step1. Analyze the status quo
Start by analyzing how people get things out and put them away, and why it takes so long. This is especially important in workplaces where a lot of different tools and materials are used, because time spent getting things out and putting them away is time lost. For example , If a person gets something out or puts something out or puts something away 200 times a day and each time takes 30 seconds , you are talking about 100 minutes a day. If the average time could be reduced to 10 seconds , more than an hour could be saved.

Typical problems  in retrieving things are :

1.       Not knowing what things are called
2.       Not sure where things are kept.
3.       Storage site far away.
4.       Storage site scattered all around.
5.       Repeated trips
6.       Hard to find because many things are there.
7.       Not labeled.
8.       Not there, but not clear whether it is finished or somebody is using it.
9.       Unclear if spare parts exist (no ledger and nowhere to ask)
10.   One brought was defective.
11.   Hard to get out.
12.   Too big to carry.
13.   Need to set or assemble.
14.   Too heavy to carry.
15.   No gangway to transport.



Step 2.Decide where things belong.
The  second step is to decide where things belong. It often happens that an object can have two names: Its real name and what everybody call it. In such cases , make a decision  which one you are going to use and stick to it. It only confuses people to have two names for the same object. On the other hand, during stock-take , you may find out that there are many things that do not have a name. There may be times when two different things have the same name, even when there are minor differences between them. You should rectify all these problems as soon as possible.

Step 3 Decide how things should be put away.
The third step is to decide how things should be put away. This is critical to functional storage. For example, files and tools should be put away so that they are easy to find and easy to access. Storage has to be done with retrieval in mind.
Having a name for everything is not yet sufficient. Things must have a location, just like everybody would have a home. It is in fact quite amazing to send a letter through the world-wide mailing system. As long as you put on the right address, it will go to its destination, anywhere in the world.  The principle is very simple – there is a name on your letter and then there is a name on the location which matches with that on the letter. Therefore in doing your ‘neatness’ , it is imperative that every object should have both a name an a location.
In assigning storage space, designate not only the location, but even the shelf. Decide where things should be, and make sure that they are at their home. This is crucial. When the storage location is on the tool and the tool’s name is on the storage location, you know you are doing it right. The following procedures should be adhered to:

1.       Everything should have a name.
2.       A place for everything and everything in its place [PEEP] 
•         No more homeless items.
•         Even if someone is just using something temporarily, it should be clear where it is.
3.       Quick identification
•         Arrows and lamps
•         Frequent –use items to be retrieved easily
4.       Safe storage
•         Heavy things on the bottom
•         Heavy things on dollies
•         Benches and ladders
5.       Height considerations
•         Knee to shoulder height most convenient.



Step 4.Obey the put –away rules.
The last step is to obey the rules. This means always putting things back where they belong. It sounds simple, and it is as if you would be doing it. It is just doing it that is difficult. Whether or not this is done will determine whether or not organization and neatness succeeds. At the same time, inventory management is important to see that you do not run out of parts or products. In order to achieve this, the rules are:

1.       Out of stock
  • Decide on minimum stock level
  • Indicate that more are on order
2.       Somebody is using it
  • Have an indication of who is using it and when they will return it.
3.       Lost
  • Decide how many there should be
  • Draw a shadow outline indicating clearly what is missing

Seiso ( Set in order )        
Seiso, the third step in "5S", says that 'everyone is a janitor.'  Seiso consists of cleaning up the workplace and giving it a 'shine'.  Cleaning must be done by everyone in the organization, from operators to managers. It would be a good idea to have every area of the workplace assigned to a person or group of persons for cleaning. No area should be left uncleaned. Everyone should see the 'workplace' through the eyes of a visitor - always thinking if it is clean enough to make a good impression.

Features of Seiso
  • Clean your workplace completely
  • Use cleaning as inspection
  • Prevent machinery and equipment deterioration
  • Keep workplace safe and easy to work
  • Can also be translated as "sweep"


Everyone is a Janitor’—Cleaning should be done by everyone in the organization, from the managing director to the cleaner. This is why in Japan, they do not need street cleaners in residential areas. Every family is responsible for cleaning the pavement in front of their houses. Therefore, what they need are rubbish collectors. The Japanese believe that while they are doing cleaning, they are cleaning their minds, too.  If  you have done your annual cleaning at home before the New Year, you would probably have this feeling of freshness.

There are even companies that have taken steps towards putting little gardens in their workplace rest areas as hygiene has ramifications well beyond the factories and offices to the surrounding environment. The mottoes for cleaning are:

•        I will not get things dirty.
•        I will not spill.
•        I will not scatter things around.
•        I will clean things right away.
•        I will rewrite things that have got erased.
•        I will tape up things that have come down.
An orderly progression of cleaning in the factory environment by piece of equipment and by location will often identify causes of various problems in the production process, such as :
•         Dirty air – conditioning filters lead to defects in printing.
•         Filing in the conveyance chutes lead to scratching.
•         Scraps in the die leading to faulty pressings.
•         Things fall off the equipment and get into the products.
•         Things get dented or bent in conveyance.
•         Filings and other particles contaminate the resin.
•         Dirty coolant leads to clogging.
•         Dust and other substances ruin the painting process.
•         Bad connections ate made because the electrical contacts are dirty.
•         Fires are caused because garbage short-circuited the electrical equipment.
•         Computer always plays up because dirt is accumulated inside.
In an office or a factory, you might start by graphing out the individual areas of responsibility. In doing this, it is important that all assignments be absolutely clear and that there is no undefined, unallocated, or grey areas. Unless each and every person takes these admonitions to heart and accepts personal responsibility, you are not going to get anywhere. 

Seiketsu(Standardization)        
The fourth step of "5S", or seiketsu, more or less translates to 'standardized clean-up'. It consists of defining the standards by which personnel must measure and maintain 'cleanliness'.  Seiketsu encompasses both personal and environmental cleanliness. Personnel must therefore practice 'seiketsu' starting with their personal tidiness. Visual management is an important ingredient of seiketsu.  Color-coding and standardized coloration of surroundings are used for easier visual identification of anomalies in the surroundings. Personnel are trained to detect abnormalities using their five senses and to correct such abnormalities immediately.

Main Features of Seiketsu
  • Maintain high standards of housekeeping and workplace organization at all times
  • Maintain cleanliness and orderliness

Standardization means continually and repeatedly maintaining your organization, neatness and cleaning. As such, it embraces both personal cleanliness and the cleanliness of the environment. The emphasis here is on visual management and 5-S standardization. Innovation and total visual management are used to attain and maintain standardized conditions so that you can always act quickly.

Visual management
Visual management has recently come into the limelight as and effective means of continuous improvement. It has been used for production, quality, safety, and customer services. Colour management has also come in for considerable attention lately. This has been used not only for colour-coding, but also to create a more pleasant work environment. There are more and more workers opting for white and other light-coloured clothes. Because these clothes show the dirt quickly, they provide a good indicator of how clean the workplace is. They highlight the need for cleaning.
One effective method of visual management is to put up appropriate labels.

Examples are:
•         Lubrication oil label- Indicate the type, grade, colour, and where it is for.
•         Annual inspection label-Should be attached to all equipment.
•         Temperature label –Indicate abnormality or overheat.
•         Responsibility label-Show who is responsible for what.
•         Identification label – Tell people what things are.
•         Safety label – Remind people of special safety considerations.
•         Zone label on meters – Normal zone and danger zone should be differentiated by different colours.
•         Ok mark- After things have been inspected, an OK mark will tell others that the part is acceptable.
•         Position mark- Put little position marks for where things go. Place footprints where people should stand. Place lines to indicate where things are supposed to stop. Put up lots of visual clues so that everybody will be able to see what is happening and to anticipate what will happen next.
Transparency
Another important consideration for standardization is ‘transparency’. In most factories and offices, tools and files are put in lockers, on closed shelves, and under covers to be off sight. Just like sweeping things under the carpet this is known as “out of sight, out of mind” practice. Those closed spaces are often among the most disorderly places, because they are not a constant eyesore. So it will be a good idea to take the wraps off these messes. Make the covers transparent. If you must have metal panels, put inspection windows in them. Make it so that everybody can see what is stored and how good (or bad ) things look.

Visualising Conditions
Many places have little ribbons on the fans so you can see the breeze. Sometimes, this method is called ‘visualizing conditions’. As a variation of this, some plant maintenance people put windows and plastic strips in some of the drain pipes so that other people can see the effluent flowing. There are many other things you can do to help people visualize a process.

Trouble Maps
When there are problems, you can show them on a map of the workplace. Just as many sales departments have pins in maps to show where their people are, you can also have pins to show problems, emergency exits, fire-fighting equipment, and other locations. Put the maps where they are visible to everyone. A trouble map can also be used to indicate those workplaces and processes that are trouble-free.

Quantification
By constantly measuring things, quantifying the results, and analyzing the data statistically, you can quickly identify the limits to management and spot deviations before they become major headaches.

   

Shitsuke (Sustain/ Discipline)       
The last step of "5S", Shitsuke, means 'Discipline.' It denotes commitment to maintain orderliness and to practice the first 4 S as a way of life.  The emphasis of shitsuke is elimination of bad habits and constant practice of good ones.  Once true shitsuke is achieved, personnel voluntarily observe cleanliness and orderliness at all times, without having to be reminded by management.

Main Features of Shitsuke-
  •  To keep in working order
  • Also translates to "Self-Discipline" meaning to do without being told

Discipline means instilling the ability of doing things the way they are supposed to be done. The emphasis here is on creating a workplace with good habits. By teaching everyone what needs to be done and having everyone practicing it bad habits are broken and good ones are formed. This process helps people form habits of making and following the rules.

The word shitsuke originally comes from the guiding stitches that are done before a garment is properly sewn. If accepted that way, discipline is an underlying tool in making life go smoother. It is recognized by the Japanese as the minimum the society needs in order to function properly.

Self –discipline is important because it reaches beyond discipline. If a person is ‘disciplined’ to do something at one time there is a chance that he may not be disciplined next time. However, self-discipline guarantees the continuity of a daily routine. The Japanese are a very self-disciplined race: they have one of the lowet crime rates in the world and are well-known as ‘obedient’ tourists.

Discipline is process of repetition and practice. Think of discipline as an integral part of industrial safety helmet, their safety shoes, or their goggles? Far too many. How many have had accidents because they stuck their hands into the machinery without shutting it off first? Again, too many. It is important that everyone has the habit of obeying simple safety rules. 


6S Process:
The name 5S comes from the 5 Japanese words that make up the 5 stages of 5S, each one starting with the letter “S”. 6S has added the additional “S” of safety to the original 5.  So the 6S is;

The 6th “S”; Safety, we now concentrate on safety aspects of our initiative, reviewing every action and each area to ensure that we have not overlooked any potential hazards.

Use of 5S to Ensure Well Organised and Safer Workplace in Textile Production | Application of 5S in Garments Industry

Posted by Firoz Kabir No comments

 The 5 'S' Process: Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, Shitsuke
     
The 5S Process, or simply "5S", is a structured program to systematically achieve total organization, cleanliness, and standardization in the workplace. A well-organized workplace results in a safer, more efficient, and more productive operation.  It boosts the morale of the workers, promoting a sense of pride in their work and ownership of their responsibilities.

According to the Free Encyclopedia (Wikepedia) -
5S is the name of a workplace organization method that uses a list of five Japanese words: seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu, and shitsuke. Transliterated or translated into English, they all start with the letter "S". The list describes how to organize a work space for efficiency and effectiveness by identifying and storing the items used, maintaining the area and items, and sustaining the new order. The decision-making process usually comes from a dialogue about standardization, which builds understanding among employees of how they should do the work.

"5S" was invented in Japan, and stands for five (5) Japanese words that start with the letter 'S': Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke.  Table 1 shows what these individual words mean. An equivalent set of five 'S' words in English have likewise been adopted by many, to preserve the "5S" acronym in English usage. These are: Sort, Set (in place), Shine, Standardize, and Sustain.  Some purists do not agree with these English words -
they argue that these words have lost the essence of the original 5 Japanese words.

The 5S practice is a technique used to establish and maintain quality environment in an organization. The name stands for five Japanese words: Seiri , Seiton, Seiso , Seiketsu and Shitsuke .  The English equivalent , their meanings and typical examples are shown in the following table:


Objectives of 5S
  • Promote Safety
  • Improve Work Flow
  • Better Product Quality
  • Reduce Inventory Waste
  • Give People Control of Their Workplace

Benefits of 5S   
  • Clean work place
  • Reduction in materials handling
  • Reduced lead time and cycle time
  • Reduced search time
  • Reduced changeover time
  • Decrease in flow distance
  • Increased floor space
  • Reduced equipment breakdowns
  • Improves workplace safety
  • Fewer hazards
  • Establishes standards for operating equipment and conducting processes Less spending on          replacing lost or damaged items
  • Less stress and tiredness
  • Improved morale and pride in the workplace
  • Greater self-esteem
  • Improvement of communication
  • Increase in productivity
  • Fast work
  • Improved appearance of the facility and expectation for compliance to maintain that condition
  • Better and constant quality of products, services
  • Training time reduced for new employees
  • Greater efficiency in achieving goals
  • Greater readiness for new tasks
  • Better impression on clients
  
Explanation of 5-S Process
                      
Seiri (Sort/Organization)     
The first step of the "5S" process, seiri, refers to the act of throwing away all unwanted, unnecessary, and unrelated materials in the workplace.  People involved in Seiri must not feel sorry about having to throw away things. The idea is to ensure that everything left in the workplace is related to work. Even the number of necessary items in the workplace must be kept to its absolute minimum. Because of seiri, simplification of tasks, effective use of space, and careful purchase of items follow.

Main Features of Seiri-
  • Remove unnecessary items and dispose of them properly
  • Make work easy by eliminating obstacles
  • Provide no chance of being disturbed with unnecessary items
  • Prevent accumulation of unnecessary items

 Organization is about separating the things which are necessary for the job from those that are not and keeping the number of the necessary once as low as possible and at a convenient location.
Stratification Management
The art of organization is in stratification management. It involves deciding how important something is and then reducing the non essential inventory. At the same time stratification management ensures that the essential things are close at hand for maximum efficiency. Thus the key to good stratification management is the ability to make these decisions about usage frequency and to ensure that things are in their proper places. It is just as important to have the things you do not need far from hand as it is to have the things you do close at hand. It is just as important to be able to throw out a broken or defective part as it is to be able to fix it. A summary of organizing things is shown in table below.



Differentiation between Need and Want
Many people do confuse between need and  want. Most of us have a colleague who has collected 60 trade magazines in his shelf over the last five years and claims that he wants to keep all of them for reference. If you ask him “Which of the 60 magazines do you need ?”, he would probably scratch his head and say “ I do not know what you are talking about .” However , if you formulate you question the following way: “Which of these 60 magazines have you not been touching over the last year?”, you should not be surprised to find that the answer is 50.
Most people tend to err in the beginning , on the conservative side of saving things ‘just in case’. But it is crucial that management make a decision. Is it needed? If not, get rid of it. If yes, how much of it is needed? Get rid of the rest. If something is borrowed , return it to its owner.



Seiton ( Shine/ Neatness)
Seiton, or orderliness, is all about efficiency.  This step consists of putting everything in an assigned place so that it can be accessed or retrieved quickly, as well as returned in that same place quickly.  If everyone has quick access to an item or materials, work flow becomes efficient, and the worker becomes productive.  The correct place, position, or holder for every tool, item, or material must be chosen carefully in relation to how the work will be performed and who will use them.  Every single item must be allocated its own place for safekeeping, and each location must be labeled for easy identification of what it's for. 

Main Features of Seiton-
  • Arrange necessary items in order so they can be easily picked for use
  •  Prevent loss and waste of time
  • Make it easy to find and pick up necessary items
  • Ensure first-come-first-serve basis
  • Make work flow smooth and easy
  • Can also be translated as "set in order"

Neatness is a study of efficiency. It is question of how quickly you can get the things you need and how quickly you can put them away. Just making an arbitrary decision on where things go is not going to make you any faster. Instead, you have to analyze why getting things out and putting them away takes so long. You have to study this for both the people using the things frequently and those who seldom use them. You have to devise a system that everyone can understand. There are four steps in achieving neatness:

Step1. Analyze the status quo
Start by analyzing how people get things out and put them away, and why it takes so long. This is especially important in workplaces where a lot of different tools and materials are used, because time spent getting things out and putting them away is time lost. For example , If a person gets something out or puts something out or puts something away 200 times a day and each time takes 30 seconds , you are talking about 100 minutes a day. If the average time could be reduced to 10 seconds , more than an hour could be saved.

Typical problems  in retrieving things are :

1.       Not knowing what things are called
2.       Not sure where things are kept.
3.       Storage site far away.
4.       Storage site scattered all around.
5.       Repeated trips
6.       Hard to find because many things are there.
7.       Not labeled.
8.       Not there, but not clear whether it is finished or somebody is using it.
9.       Unclear if spare parts exist (no ledger and nowhere to ask)
10.   One brought was defective.
11.   Hard to get out.
12.   Too big to carry.
13.   Need to set or assemble.
14.   Too heavy to carry.
15.   No gangway to transport.



Step 2.Decide where things belong.
The  second step is to decide where things belong. It often happens that an object can have two names: Its real name and what everybody call it. In such cases , make a decision  which one you are going to use and stick to it. It only confuses people to have two names for the same object. On the other hand, during stock-take , you may find out that there are many things that do not have a name. There may be times when two different things have the same name, even when there are minor differences between them. You should rectify all these problems as soon as possible.

Step 3 Decide how things should be put away.
The third step is to decide how things should be put away. This is critical to functional storage. For example, files and tools should be put away so that they are easy to find and easy to access. Storage has to be done with retrieval in mind.
Having a name for everything is not yet sufficient. Things must have a location, just like everybody would have a home. It is in fact quite amazing to send a letter through the world-wide mailing system. As long as you put on the right address, it will go to its destination, anywhere in the world.  The principle is very simple – there is a name on your letter and then there is a name on the location which matches with that on the letter. Therefore in doing your ‘neatness’ , it is imperative that every object should have both a name an a location.
In assigning storage space, designate not only the location, but even the shelf. Decide where things should be, and make sure that they are at their home. This is crucial. When the storage location is on the tool and the tool’s name is on the storage location, you know you are doing it right. The following procedures should be adhered to:

1.       Everything should have a name.
2.       A place for everything and everything in its place [PEEP] 
•         No more homeless items.
•         Even if someone is just using something temporarily, it should be clear where it is.
3.       Quick identification
•         Arrows and lamps
•         Frequent –use items to be retrieved easily
4.       Safe storage
•         Heavy things on the bottom
•         Heavy things on dollies
•         Benches and ladders
5.       Height considerations
•         Knee to shoulder height most convenient.



Step 4.Obey the put –away rules.
The last step is to obey the rules. This means always putting things back where they belong. It sounds simple, and it is as if you would be doing it. It is just doing it that is difficult. Whether or not this is done will determine whether or not organization and neatness succeeds. At the same time, inventory management is important to see that you do not run out of parts or products. In order to achieve this, the rules are:

1.       Out of stock
  • Decide on minimum stock level
  • Indicate that more are on order
2.       Somebody is using it
  • Have an indication of who is using it and when they will return it.
3.       Lost
  • Decide how many there should be
  • Draw a shadow outline indicating clearly what is missing

Seiso ( Set in order )        
Seiso, the third step in "5S", says that 'everyone is a janitor.'  Seiso consists of cleaning up the workplace and giving it a 'shine'.  Cleaning must be done by everyone in the organization, from operators to managers. It would be a good idea to have every area of the workplace assigned to a person or group of persons for cleaning. No area should be left uncleaned. Everyone should see the 'workplace' through the eyes of a visitor - always thinking if it is clean enough to make a good impression.

Features of Seiso
  • Clean your workplace completely
  • Use cleaning as inspection
  • Prevent machinery and equipment deterioration
  • Keep workplace safe and easy to work
  • Can also be translated as "sweep"


Everyone is a Janitor’—Cleaning should be done by everyone in the organization, from the managing director to the cleaner. This is why in Japan, they do not need street cleaners in residential areas. Every family is responsible for cleaning the pavement in front of their houses. Therefore, what they need are rubbish collectors. The Japanese believe that while they are doing cleaning, they are cleaning their minds, too.  If  you have done your annual cleaning at home before the New Year, you would probably have this feeling of freshness.

There are even companies that have taken steps towards putting little gardens in their workplace rest areas as hygiene has ramifications well beyond the factories and offices to the surrounding environment. The mottoes for cleaning are:

•        I will not get things dirty.
•        I will not spill.
•        I will not scatter things around.
•        I will clean things right away.
•        I will rewrite things that have got erased.
•        I will tape up things that have come down.
An orderly progression of cleaning in the factory environment by piece of equipment and by location will often identify causes of various problems in the production process, such as :
•         Dirty air – conditioning filters lead to defects in printing.
•         Filing in the conveyance chutes lead to scratching.
•         Scraps in the die leading to faulty pressings.
•         Things fall off the equipment and get into the products.
•         Things get dented or bent in conveyance.
•         Filings and other particles contaminate the resin.
•         Dirty coolant leads to clogging.
•         Dust and other substances ruin the painting process.
•         Bad connections ate made because the electrical contacts are dirty.
•         Fires are caused because garbage short-circuited the electrical equipment.
•         Computer always plays up because dirt is accumulated inside.
In an office or a factory, you might start by graphing out the individual areas of responsibility. In doing this, it is important that all assignments be absolutely clear and that there is no undefined, unallocated, or grey areas. Unless each and every person takes these admonitions to heart and accepts personal responsibility, you are not going to get anywhere. 

Seiketsu(Standardization)        
The fourth step of "5S", or seiketsu, more or less translates to 'standardized clean-up'. It consists of defining the standards by which personnel must measure and maintain 'cleanliness'.  Seiketsu encompasses both personal and environmental cleanliness. Personnel must therefore practice 'seiketsu' starting with their personal tidiness. Visual management is an important ingredient of seiketsu.  Color-coding and standardized coloration of surroundings are used for easier visual identification of anomalies in the surroundings. Personnel are trained to detect abnormalities using their five senses and to correct such abnormalities immediately.

Main Features of Seiketsu
  • Maintain high standards of housekeeping and workplace organization at all times
  • Maintain cleanliness and orderliness

Standardization means continually and repeatedly maintaining your organization, neatness and cleaning. As such, it embraces both personal cleanliness and the cleanliness of the environment. The emphasis here is on visual management and 5-S standardization. Innovation and total visual management are used to attain and maintain standardized conditions so that you can always act quickly.

Visual management
Visual management has recently come into the limelight as and effective means of continuous improvement. It has been used for production, quality, safety, and customer services. Colour management has also come in for considerable attention lately. This has been used not only for colour-coding, but also to create a more pleasant work environment. There are more and more workers opting for white and other light-coloured clothes. Because these clothes show the dirt quickly, they provide a good indicator of how clean the workplace is. They highlight the need for cleaning.
One effective method of visual management is to put up appropriate labels.

Examples are:
•         Lubrication oil label- Indicate the type, grade, colour, and where it is for.
•         Annual inspection label-Should be attached to all equipment.
•         Temperature label –Indicate abnormality or overheat.
•         Responsibility label-Show who is responsible for what.
•         Identification label – Tell people what things are.
•         Safety label – Remind people of special safety considerations.
•         Zone label on meters – Normal zone and danger zone should be differentiated by different colours.
•         Ok mark- After things have been inspected, an OK mark will tell others that the part is acceptable.
•         Position mark- Put little position marks for where things go. Place footprints where people should stand. Place lines to indicate where things are supposed to stop. Put up lots of visual clues so that everybody will be able to see what is happening and to anticipate what will happen next.
Transparency
Another important consideration for standardization is ‘transparency’. In most factories and offices, tools and files are put in lockers, on closed shelves, and under covers to be off sight. Just like sweeping things under the carpet this is known as “out of sight, out of mind” practice. Those closed spaces are often among the most disorderly places, because they are not a constant eyesore. So it will be a good idea to take the wraps off these messes. Make the covers transparent. If you must have metal panels, put inspection windows in them. Make it so that everybody can see what is stored and how good (or bad ) things look.

Visualising Conditions
Many places have little ribbons on the fans so you can see the breeze. Sometimes, this method is called ‘visualizing conditions’. As a variation of this, some plant maintenance people put windows and plastic strips in some of the drain pipes so that other people can see the effluent flowing. There are many other things you can do to help people visualize a process.

Trouble Maps
When there are problems, you can show them on a map of the workplace. Just as many sales departments have pins in maps to show where their people are, you can also have pins to show problems, emergency exits, fire-fighting equipment, and other locations. Put the maps where they are visible to everyone. A trouble map can also be used to indicate those workplaces and processes that are trouble-free.

Quantification
By constantly measuring things, quantifying the results, and analyzing the data statistically, you can quickly identify the limits to management and spot deviations before they become major headaches.

   

Shitsuke (Sustain/ Discipline)       
The last step of "5S", Shitsuke, means 'Discipline.' It denotes commitment to maintain orderliness and to practice the first 4 S as a way of life.  The emphasis of shitsuke is elimination of bad habits and constant practice of good ones.  Once true shitsuke is achieved, personnel voluntarily observe cleanliness and orderliness at all times, without having to be reminded by management.

Main Features of Shitsuke-
  •  To keep in working order
  • Also translates to "Self-Discipline" meaning to do without being told

Discipline means instilling the ability of doing things the way they are supposed to be done. The emphasis here is on creating a workplace with good habits. By teaching everyone what needs to be done and having everyone practicing it bad habits are broken and good ones are formed. This process helps people form habits of making and following the rules.

The word shitsuke originally comes from the guiding stitches that are done before a garment is properly sewn. If accepted that way, discipline is an underlying tool in making life go smoother. It is recognized by the Japanese as the minimum the society needs in order to function properly.

Self –discipline is important because it reaches beyond discipline. If a person is ‘disciplined’ to do something at one time there is a chance that he may not be disciplined next time. However, self-discipline guarantees the continuity of a daily routine. The Japanese are a very self-disciplined race: they have one of the lowet crime rates in the world and are well-known as ‘obedient’ tourists.

Discipline is process of repetition and practice. Think of discipline as an integral part of industrial safety helmet, their safety shoes, or their goggles? Far too many. How many have had accidents because they stuck their hands into the machinery without shutting it off first? Again, too many. It is important that everyone has the habit of obeying simple safety rules. 


6S Process:
The name 5S comes from the 5 Japanese words that make up the 5 stages of 5S, each one starting with the letter “S”. 6S has added the additional “S” of safety to the original 5.  So the 6S is;

The 6th “S”; Safety, we now concentrate on safety aspects of our initiative, reviewing every action and each area to ensure that we have not overlooked any potential hazards.

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